A suitable drug-loaded scaffold that can postoperatively release an antituberculosis drug efficiently in a lesion area and help repair a bone defect is very important in the clinical treatment of bone tuberculosis (TB). In this study, a composite drug-loaded cylindrical scaffold was prepared by using three-dimensional printing technology in combination with the mesoporous confinement range, surface chemical groups, and gradual degradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate). This achieves the slow release of a drug for as long as possible. We implanted the drug-loaded compound scaffold into New Zealand rabbits’ femur defect model to study the in vivo drug release performance and osteogenic ability. The in vivo release of isoniazid and rifampicin from the prepared composites could be effectively sustained for 12 weeks in local tissues, whereas these drugs were sustained for just 2 weeks in a control group. The blood drug concentrations were very low and most concentrations were below 5 μg/ml. Therefore, the systemic toxic adverse effect is very low. In addition, the composite exhibits good osteogenic potential in a rabbit bone defect model. The results of this study indicate that this composite has great potential for treating osteoarticular TB.