Designing bone scaffolds containing both organic and inorganic composites simulating the architecture of the bone is the most important principle in bone tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to fabricate a composite scaffold containing poly (D, l)-lactide (PDLLA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as a platform for osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, PDLLA/β-TCP scaffolds were fabricated using three-dimensional printing (3D) technology through melt excursion technique. The physicomechanical characteristics, including microstructure, mechanical properties, of the customized scaffolds were investigated. Further, the in vitro biological characteristics of manufactured scaffolds were evaluated in conjugation with buccal fat pad derived mesenchymal stem cells in terms of cell attachment, viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation capacity. The 3D printed customized scaffold in this study showed proper pore size, porosity, mechanical strength, material composition, biocompatibility, and osteogenic differentiation capacity. The obtained results converge to reveal the promising features of the nanocomposite 3D printed platform for personalized bone tissue engineering.