3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers from 2011 (16 results)

A route toward the development of 3D magnetic scaffolds with tailored mechanical and morphological properties for hard tissue regeneration: Preliminary study

Virtual and Physical Prototyping 2011 Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 189-195

A basic approach toward the design of three-dimensional (3D) rapid prototyped magnetic scaffolds for hard-tissue regeneration has been proposed. In particular, 3D scaffolds consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix and iron oxide (Fe3O4) or iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles were fabricated through a 3D fibre deposition technique. As a first approach, a polymer to nanoparticle weight ratio of 90/10 (wt/wt) was used. The effect of the inclusion of both kinds of nanoparticles on the mechanical, magnetic, and biological performances of the scaffolds was studied. The inclusion of Fe3O4 and FeHA nanoparticles generally improves the modulus and the yield stress of the…

A basic approach toward the development of nanocomposite magnetic scaffolds for advanced bone tissue engineering

Jounal of Applied Polymer Science 2011 Volume 122, Issue 6, Pages 3599-3605

Magnetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix and iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles were designed and developed through a three-dimensional (3D) fiber-deposition technique. PCL/Fe3O4 scaffolds were characterized by a 90/10 w/w composition. Tensile and magnetic measurements were carried out, and nondestructive 3D imaging was performed through microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT). Furthermore, confocal analysis was undertaken to investigate human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and spreading on the PCL/Fe3O4 nanocomposite fibers. The results suggest that nanoparticles mechanically reinforced the PCL matrix; the elastic modulus and the maximum stress increased about 10 and 30%, respectively. However, the maximum strain…

Comparably accelerated vascularization by preincorporation of aortic fragments and mesenchymal stem cells in implanted tissue engineering constructs

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2011 Volume 97A, Issue 4, Pages 383-394

The demanding need for tissue replacement resulted in manifold approaches for the construction of different tissues. One common problem which hampers the clinical usage of tissue engineering constructs is a limited vascularization. In an attempt to accelerate the vascularization of tissue engineering constructs we compared the usage of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) and fragments derived from the aorta in vivo. Tissue engineering constructs composed of PLGA scaffolds containing Matrigel (n = 8), aortic fragments embedded in Matrigel (n = 8), bmMSCs embedded in Matrigel (n = 8), and aortic fragments embedded in Matrigel combined with bmMSCs (n =…

Valproate release from polycaprolactone implants prepared by 3D-bioplotting

Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011 Volume 66, Number 7, Pages 511-516

In this study we examined the release kinetics of valproate from polycaprolactone (PCL) implants constructed for local antiepileptic therapy. The PCL implants were produced with a novel 3D-Bioplotting technology. Release kinetics were determined by superfusion of these implants. Valproate was measured in the superfusate fractions with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC measurements were linear over a concentration range of 10-500 g/mL for valproate and the limit of quantification was found to be 9 g/mL. The HPLC method used is simple, accurate and sensitive. Within the first day, valproate (10%w/w)-PCL implants released already 77% of the maximum possible liberated…

Hierarchical scaffold design for mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapy of hemophilia B

Biomaterials 2011 Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 295-305

Gene therapy for hemophilia B and other hereditary plasma protein deficiencies showed great promise in pre-clinical and early clinical trials. However, safety concerns about in vivo delivery of viral vectors and poor post-transplant survival of ex vivo modified cells remain key hurdles for clinical translation of gene therapy. We here describe a 3D scaffold system based on porous hydroxyapatite-PLGA composites coated with biomineralized collagen 1. When combined with autologous gene-engineered factor IX (hFIX) positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and implanted in hemophilic mice, these scaffolds supported long-term engraftment and systemic protein delivery by MSCs in vivo. Optimization of the scaffolds…

Calvaria bone chamber-A new model for intravital assessment of osseous angiogenesis

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2011 Volume 99A, Issue 2, pages 151-157

The faith of tissue engineered bone replacing constructs depends on their early supply with oxygen and nutrients, and thus on a rapid vascularization. Although some models for direct observation of angiogenesis are described, none of them allows the observation of new vessel formation in desmal bone. Therefore, we developed a new chamber model suitable for quantitative in vivo assessment of the vascularization of bone substitutes by intravital fluorescence microscopy. In the parietal calvaria of 32 balb/c mice a critical size defect was set. Porous 3D-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-blocks were inserted into 16 osseous defects (groups 3 and 4) while other 16 osseous…

A Novel Approach for Studying Microcirculation in Bone Defects by Intravital Fluorescence Microscopy

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2011 Volume 17, Issue 12, Pages 1151-1159

Angiogenic and inflammatory responses to biodegradable scaffolds were previously studied using the dorsal skinfold chamber for testing different scaffold materials. In this model, the angiogenic response originates from the soft tissue of the skin. Herein, we introduce a new model that allows the study of developing microcirculation of bone defects for testing tissue-engineered constructs. A bone defect was prepared in the femur of Balb/c mice by inserting a pin for intramedullary fixation, and a custom-made observation window fixed over the defect allowed constant observation. This study included three different groups: empty defect (control), defect filled with porous poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide), and beta-tricalcium-phosphate…

Three-dimensional plotted scaffolds with controlled pore size gradients: Effect of scaffold geometry on mechanical performance and cell seeding efficiency

Acta Biomaterialia 2011 Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1009-1018

Scaffolds produced by rapid prototyping (RP) techniques have proved their value for tissue engineering applications, due to their ability to produce predetermined forms and structures featuring fully interconnected pore architectures. Nevertheless, low cell seeding efficiency and non-uniform distribution of cells remain major limitations when using such types of scaffold. This can be mainly attributed to the inadequate pore architecture of scaffolds produced by RP and the limited efficiency of cell seeding techniques normally adopted. In this study we aimed at producing scaffolds with pore size gradients to enhance cell seeding efficiency and control the spatial organization of cells within the…

Comparison of the osteoblastic activity conferred on Si-doped hydroxyapatite scaffolds by different osteostatin coatings

Acta Biomaterialia 2011 Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3555-3562

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (107-111) (osteostatin) induces osteogenic effects in osteoblasts in vitro and in regenerating bone in mice and rabbits. In this study we used osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell cultures to evaluate and compare the bioactivity of this peptide either adsorbed or covalently bound (by its C-terminus) to Si-doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) scaffolds after organic (-NH2) functionalization. By these means osteostatin can be locally released or kept anchored to the scaffold surface. This was confirmed by chemical analysis and by testing the efficiency of osteostatin-loaded Si-HA scaffolds (placed in Transwell chambers) in healing a scratch wound in mouse pluripotent mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells….

Preparation of 3-D scaffolds in the SiO2–P2O5 system with tailored hierarchical meso-macroporosity

Acta Biomaterialia 2011 Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1265-1273

Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of three-dimensional scaffolds in the binary system SiO2–P2O5 exhibiting different scales of porosity: (i) highly ordered mesopores with diameters of ca. 4 nm; (ii) macropores with diameters in the 30–80 μm range with interconnections of ca. 2–4 and 8–9 μm; and (iii) ultra-large macropores of ca. 400 μm. The hierarchical porosity of the resulting scaffolds makes them suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. The chemical nature and mesoporosity of these matrices would allow these scaffolds to act as local controlled delivery systems of biologically active molecules, such as certain drugs to…

Integration of hollow fiber membranes improves nutrient supply in three-dimensional tissue constructs

Acta Biomaterialia 2011 Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3312-3324

Sufficient nutrient and oxygen transport is a potent modulator of cell proliferation in in vitro tissue-engineered constructs. The lack of oxygen and culture medium can create a potentially lethal environment and limit cellular metabolic activity and growth. Diffusion through scaffold and multi-cellular tissue typically limits transport in vitro, leading to potential hypoxic regions and reduction in the viable tissue thickness. For the in vitro generation of clinically relevant tissue-engineered grafts, current nutrient diffusion limitations should be addressed. Major approaches to overcoming these include culture with bioreactors, scaffolds with artificial microvasculature, oxygen carriers and pre-vascularization of the engineered tissues. This study…

Comparison of bacterial adhesion and cellular proliferation on newly developed three-dimensional scaffolds manufactured by rapid prototyping technology

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2011 Volume 98A, Issue 2, pages 303-311

Scaffolds used in the field of tissue engineering should facilitate the adherence, spreading, and ingrowth of cells as well as prevent microbial adherence. For the first time, this study simultaneously deals with microbial and tissue cell adhesion to rapid prototyping-produced 3D-scaffolds. The cell growth of human osteosarcoma cells (CAL-72) over a time period of 3-11 days were examined on three scaffolds (PLGA, PLLA, PLLA-TCP) and compared to the adhesion of salivary microorganisms and representative germs of the oral flora (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell proliferation measurements, and…

Thermal imaging analysis of 3D biological agarose matrices

International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics 2011 Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 167-179

Advances in rapid prototyping have allowed for the construction of biocompatible materials (hydrogels) to be used in regenerative medicine. Within this area of construction inherent problems arise due to the mechanical instability of such materials that are temperature dependent. This research paper describes a thermal imaging analysis used to circumvent needle blockage when using an RP technology called bioplotting, used for extruding high temperature hydrogels, where agarose was the experimental biomaterial. The investigation describes how we have overcome these inherent problems through thermal imaging analysis, allowing us to accurately construct 3D biological matrices that have satisfied the in-vitro cell requirements…

Prolongated Survival of Osteoblast-Like Cells on Biodegradable Scaffolds by Heat Shock Preconditioning

Tissue Engineering Part A 2011 Volume 17, Issue 15-16, Pages 1935-1943

The implantation of tissue-engineered constructs leads to hypoxic and physical stress to the seeded cells until they were reached by a functional microvascular system. Preconditioning of cells with heat shock induced heat shock proteins, which can support the cells to survive a subsequent episode of stress that would otherwise be lethal. Preconditioning of tissue-engineered constructs resulted in significantly higher number of surviving osteoblast-like cells (OLC). At the 6th and 10th day, angiogenic response was found comparative to poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds vitalized with either unconditioned or preconditioned OLC. However, they were significantly enhanced compared with the nonvitalized collagen-labeled PLGA scaffolds. This…

Immobilization and bioactivity evaluation of FGF-1 and FGF-2 on powdered silicon-doped hydroxyapatite and their scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2011 Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 405-416

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are polypeptides that control the proliferation and differentiation of various cell types including osteoblasts. FGFs are also strong inducers of angiogenesis, necessary to obtain oxygen and nutrients during tissue repair. With the aim to incorporate these desirable FGF biological properties into bioceramics for bone repair, silicon substituted hydroxyapatites (Si-HA) were used as materials to immobilize bioactive FGF-1 and FGF-2. Thus, the binding of these growth factors to powdered Si-HA and Si-HA scaffolds was carried out efficiently in the present study and both FGFs maintained its biological activity on osteoblasts after its immobilization. The improvement of cell…

Poly (caprolactone) based magnetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Journal of Applied Physics 2011 Volume 109, Issue 7, 07B313

Synthetic scaffolds for tissue engineering coupled to stem cells represent a promising approach aiming to promote the regeneration of large defects of damaged tissues or organs. Magnetic nanocomposites formed by a biodegradable poly(caprolactone) (PCL) matrix and superparamagneticiron doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles at different PCL/FeHA compositions have been successfully prototyped, layer on layer, through 3D bioplotting. Magnetic measurements, mechanical testing, and imaging were carried out to calibrate both model and technological processing in the magnetized scaffold prototyping. An amount of 10% w/w of magnetic FeHA nanoparticles represents a reinforcement for PCL matrix, however, a reduction of strain at failure is also…