3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers from 2010 (12 results)

Ultraviolet light crosslinking of poly(trimethylene carbonate) for elastomeric tissue engineering scaffolds

Biomaterials 2010 Volume 31, Issue 33, Pages 8696-8705

A practical method of photocrosslinking high molecular weight poly(trimethylene carbonate)(PTMC) is presented. Flexible, elastomeric and biodegradable networks could be readily prepared by UV irradiating PTMC films containing pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) and a photoinitiator. The network characteristics, mechanical properties, wettability, and in vitro enzymatic erosion of the photocrosslinked PTMC films were investigated. Densely crosslinked networks with gel contents up to 98% could be obtained in this manner. Upon photocrosslinking, flexible and tough networks with excellent elastomeric properties were obtained. To illustrate the ease with which the properties of the networks can be tailored, blends of PTMC with mPEG-PTMC or with PTMC-PCL-PTMC…

An approach in developing 3D fiber‐deposited magnetic scaffolds for tissue engineering

AIP Conference Proceedings 2010 1255, 420

Scaffolds should possess suitable properties to play their specific role. In this work, the potential of 3D fiber deposition technique to develop multifunctional and well‐defined magnetic poly(ε‐caprolactone)/iron oxide scaffolds has been highlighted, and the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on the biological and mechanical performances has been assessed.

Accelerated Angiogenic Host Tissue Response to Poly(L-Lactide-co-Glycolide) Scaffolds by Vitalization with Osteoblast-like Cells

Tissue Engineering Part A 2010 Volume 16, Issue 7, Pages 2265-2279

Background: Bone substitutes should ideally promote rapid vascularization, which could be accelerated if these substitutes were vitalized by autologous cells. Although adequate engraftment of porous poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds has been demonstrated in the past, it has not yet been investigated how vascularization is influenced by vitalization or, more precisely, by seeding PLGA scaffolds with osteoblast-like cells (OLCs). For this reason, we conducted an in vivo study to assess host angiogenic and inflammatory responses after the implantation of PLGA scaffolds vitalized with isogeneic OLCs. Materials and Methods: OLCs were seeded on collagen-coated PLGA scaffolds that were implanted into dorsal skinfold chambers…

Effects of VEGF loading on scaffold-confined vascularization

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2010 Volume 95A, Issue 3, Pages 783-792

Adequate vascularization of tissue-engineered constructs remains a major challenge in bone grafting. In view of this, we loaded ß-tricalcium-phosphate (ß-TCP) and porous poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds via collagen coating with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and studied whether the VEGF loading improves scaffold angiogenesis and vascularization. Dorsal skinfold chambers were implanted into 48 balb/c mice, which were assigned to 6 groups (n = 8 each). Uncoated (controls), collagen-coated, and additionally VEGF-loaded PLGA and ß-TCP scaffolds were inserted into the chambers. Angiogenesis, neovascularization, and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction were analyzed repeatedly during a 14-day observation period using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, VEGF release…

Development and Characterization of a Novel Hybrid Tissue Engineering-Based Scaffold for Spinal Cord Injury Repair

Tissue Engineering Part A 2010 Volume: 16 Issue 1, Pages 45-54

Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents a significant health and social problem, and therefore it is vital to develop novel strategies that can specifically target it. In this context, the objective of the present work was to develop a new range of three-dimensional (3D) tubular structures aimed at inducing the regeneration within SCI sites. Up to six different 3D tubular structures were initially developed by rapid prototyping: 3D bioplotting–based on a biodegradable blend of starch. These structures were then further complemented by injecting Gellan Gum, a polysaccharide-based hydrogel, in the central area of structures. The mechanical properties of these structures were…

Effect of scaffold architecture and BMP-2/BMP-7 delivery on in vitro bone regeneration

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2010 Volume 21, Issue 11, Pages 2999-3008

The aim of this study was to develop 3-D tissue engineered constructs that mimic the in vivo conditions through a self-contained growth factor delivery system. A set of nanoparticles providing the release of BMP-2 initially followed by the release of BMP-7 were incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with different 3-D architectures produced by 3-D plotting and wet spinning. The release patterns were: each growth factor alone, simultaneous, and sequential. The orientation of the fibers did not have a significant effect on the kinetics of release of the model protein BSA; but affected proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cell proliferation…

The effect of scaffold architecture on properties of direct 3D fiber deposition of porous Ti6Al4V for orthopedic implants

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2010 Volume 92A, Issue 1, pages 33-42

3D porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds were directly fabricated by a rapid prototyping technology, 3D fiber deposition (3DF). In this study, scaffolds with different structures were fabricated by changing fiber spacing and fiber orientation. The influence of different architectures on mechanical properties and permeability of the scaffold were investigated. Mechanical analysis revealed that compressive strength and E-modulus increase with decreasing the porosity. Permeability measurements showed that not only the total porosity but also the porous structure can influence the permeability. 3DF was found to provide good control and reproducibility of the desired degree of porosity and the 3D structure. Results of this…

Regeneration of the articular surface of the rabbit synovial joint by cell homing: a proof of concept study

The Lancet 2010 Volume 376, Issue 9739, Pages 440-448

Background A common approach for tissue regeneration is cell delivery, for example by direct transplantation of stem or progenitor cells. An alternative, by recruitment of endogenous cells, needs experimental evidence. We tested the hypothesis that the articular surface of the synovial joint can regenerate with a biological cue spatially embedded in an anatomically correct bioscaffold. Methods In this proof of concept study, the surface morphology of a rabbit proximal humeral joint was captured with laser scanning and reconstructed by computer-aided design. We fabricated an anatomically correct bioscaffold using a composite of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite. The entire articular surface of unilateral…

Anatomically shaped tooth and periodontal regeneration by cell homing

Journal of Dental Research 2010 Volume 89, Issue 8, Pages 842-847

Tooth regeneration by cell delivery encounters translational hurdles. We hypothesized that anatomically correct teeth can regenerate in scaffolds without cell transplantation. Novel, anatomically shaped human molar scaffolds and rat incisor scaffolds were fabricated by 3D bioprinting from a hybrid of poly-ε-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite with 200-µm-diameter interconnecting microchannels. In each of 22 rats, an incisor scaffold was implanted orthotopically following mandibular incisor extraction, whereas a human molar scaffold was implanted ectopically into the dorsum. Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) were delivered in scaffold microchannels. After 9 weeks, a putative periodontal ligament and new bone regenerated at the interface…

Bone repair by cell-seeded 3D-bioplotted composite scaffolds made of collagen treated tricalciumphosphate or tricalciumphosphate-chitosan-collagen hydrogel or PLGA in ovine critical-sized calvarial defects

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 2010 Volume 93B, Issue 2, Pages 520-530

The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effect of three different cell-seeded 3D-bioplotted scaffolds in a ovine calvarial critical-size defect model. The choice of scaffold-materials was based on their applicability for 3D-bioplotting and respective possibility to produce tailor-made scaffolds for the use in cranio-facial surgery for the replacement of complex shaped boneparts. Scaffold raw-materials are known to be osteoinductive when being cell-seeded [poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)] or having components with osteoinductive properties as tricalciumphosphate (TCP) or collagen (Col) or chitosan. The scaffold-materials PLGA, TCP/Col, and HYDR (TCP/Col/chitosan) were cell-seeded with osteoblast-like cells whether gained from bone (OLB) or from…

A micro-scale surface-structured PCL scaffold fabricated by a 3D plotter and a chemical blowing agent

Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2010 Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 159-170

To study cell responses, polymeric scaffolds with a controllable pore size and porosity have been fabricated using rapid-prototyping methods. However, the scaffolds fabricated by rapid prototyping have very smooth surfaces, which tend to discourage initial cell attachment. Initial cell attachment, migration, differentiation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the chemical and physical characteristics of the scaffold surface. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) plotting method supplemented with a chemical blowing agent to produce a surface-modified 3D scaffold in which the surface is inscribed with nano- and micro-sized pores. The chemically-blown 3D polymeric scaffold exhibited positive qualities, including the…

Fabrication and characterization of 3D scaffold using 3D plotting system

Chinese Science Bulletin 2010 Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 94-98

In this paper, we design and fabricate a 3D scaffold using rapid prototyping (RP) technology for tissue engineering. The scaffold should have a three-dimensional interconnected pore network. We fabricate a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold with interconnecting pores and uniform porosity for cell ingrowth using a 3D plotting system. In order to keep the three dimensional shape under mechanical loading while implanted, we design an oscillating nozzle system to increase elastic modulus and yield strength of PCL strand. We characterize the influence of pore geometry, compressive modulus of the scaffold, elastic modulus and yield strength of the strand using SEM, dynamical mechanical…