3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers from 2009 (13 results)

Tissue Formation and Vascularization in Anatomically Shaped Human Joint Condyle Ectopically in Vivo

Tissue Engineering Part A 2009 Volume 15, Issue 12, Pages 3923-3930

Scale-up of bioengineered grafts toward clinical applications is a challenge in regenerative medicine. Here, we report tissue formation and vascularization of anatomically shaped human tibial condyles ectopically with a dimension of 20 × 15 × 15 mm3. A composite of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite was fabricated using layer deposition of three-dimensional interlaid strands with interconnecting microchannels (400 μm) and seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hMSCs) with or without osteogenic differentiation. An overlaying layer (1 mm deep) of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel encapsulating hMSCs or hMSC-derived chondrocytes was molded into anatomic shape and anchored into microchannels by gel infusion. After 6 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in athymic rats,…

Consequences of seeded cell type on vascularization of tissue engineering constructs in vivo

Microvascular Research 2009 Volume 78, Issue 2, Pages 180-190

Implantation of tissue engineering constructs is a promising technique to reconstruct injured tissue. However, after implantation the nutrition of the constructs is predominantly restricted to vascularization. Since cells possess distinct angiogenic potency, we herein assessed whether scaffold vitalization with different cell types improves scaffold vascularization. 32 male balb/c mice received a dorsal skinfold chamber. Angiogenesis, microhemodynamics, leukocyte–endothelial cell interaction and microvascular permeability induced in the host tissue after implantation of either collagen coated poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds (group 4), additionally seeded with osteoblast-like cells (OLCs, group 1), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs, group 2) or a combination of OLCs…

3D polycaprolactone scaffolds with controlled pore structure using a rapid prototyping system

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2009 Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 229-234

Designing a three-dimensional (3-D) ideal scaffold has been one of the main goals in biomaterials and tissue engineering, and various mechanical techniques have been applied to fabricate biomedical scaffolds used for soft and hard tissue regeneration. Scaffolds should be biodegradable and biocompatible, provide temporary support for cell growth to allow cell adhesion, and consist of a defined structure that can be formed into customized shapes by a computer-aided design system. This versatility in preparing scaffolds gives us the opportunity to use rapid prototyping devices to fabricate polymeric scaffolds. In this study, we fabricated polycaprolactone scaffolds with interconnecting pores using a…

Three-Dimensional Plotter Technology for Fabricating Polymeric Scaffolds with Micro-grooved Surfaces

Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2009 Volume 20, Issue 14, Pages 2089-2101
J. Son G. H. Kim

Various mechanical techniques have been used to fabricate biomedical scaffolds, including rapid prototyping (RP) devices that operate from CAD files of the target feature information. The three-dimensional (3-D) bio-plotter is one RP system that can produce design-based scaffolds with good mechanical properties for mimicking cartilage and bones. However, the scaffolds fabricated by RP have very smooth surfaces, which tend to discourage initial cell attachment. Initial cell attachment, migration, differentiation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the chemical and physical characteristics of the scaffold surface. In this study, we propose a new 3-D plotting method supplemented with a piezoelectric system for…

Construction of 3D biological matrices using rapid prototyping technology

Rapid Prototyping Journal 2009 Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 204 - 210

Purpose Hydrogels with low viscosities tend to be difficult to use in constructing tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds used to replace or restore damaged tissue, due to the length of time it takes for final gelation to take place resulting in the scaffolds collapsing due to their mechanical instability. However, recent advances in rapid prototyping have allowed for a new technology called bioplotting to be developed, which aims to circumvent these inherent problems. This paper aims to present details of the process. Design/methodology/approach The paper demonstrates how by using the bioplotting technique complex 3D geometrical scaffolds with accurate feature sizes and…

Design and Dynamic Culture of 3D Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Journal of Biomaterials Applications 2009

Engineered scaffolds for tissue-engineering should be designed to match the stiffness and strength of healthy tissues while maintaining an interconnected pore network and a reasonable porosity. In this work, we have used 3D-ploting technique to produce poly-LLactide (PLLA) macroporous scaffolds with two different pore sizes. The ability of these macroporous scaffolds to support chondrocyte attachment and viability were compared under static and dynamic loading in vitro. Moreover, the 3D-plotting technique was combined with porogen-leaching, leading to micro/macroporous scaffolds, so as to examine the effect of microporosity on the level of cell attachment and viability under similar loading condition. Canine chondrocytes…

Rapid prototyping of anatomically shaped, tissue-engineered implants for restoring congruent articulating surfaces in small joints

Cell Proliferation 2009 Volume 42, Issue 4, pages 485-497

Background:  Preliminary studies investigated advanced scaffold design and tissue engineering approaches towards restoring congruent articulating surfaces in small joints. Materials and methods:  Anatomical femoral and tibial cartilage constructs, fabricated by three-dimensional fibre deposition (3DF) or compression moulding/particulate leaching (CM), were evaluated in vitro and in vivo in an autologous rabbit model. Effects of scaffold pore architecture on rabbit chondrocyte differentiation and mechanical properties were evaluated following in vitro culture and subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. After femoral and tibial osteotomy and autologous implantation of tissue-engineered constructs in rabbit knee joints, implant fixation and joint articulation were evaluated. Results:  Rapid prototyping…

Cartilage Tissue Engineering Using Smart Scaffold Design & Advanced Bio Manufacturing

Orthopaedic Proceedings 2009 91-B:SUPP_II, Pages 343-343

Articular cartilage has a limited regenerative capacity. Tissue engineering strategies adopting seeding and differentiation of individual chondrocytes on porous 3D scaffolds of clinically relevant size remains a considerable challenge. A well documented method to produce small samples of differentiated cartilage tissue in vitro is via micro-mass (pellet) culture, whereby, high concentrations of chondrocytes coalesce to form. a spherical tissue pellet. However, pellet culture techniques are not applied clinically as it is only possible to produce small amounts of tissue (1–2mm). The aims of this study were to develop a method for mass-production of pellets, and investigate whether an alternative “pellet…

Intra-scaffold continuous medium flow combines chondrocyte seeding and culture systems for tissue engineered trachea construction

Interactive CardioVasc Thoracic Surgery 2009 Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 27-30

In this study we tested the possibility of seeding chondrocytes into poly (ethylene glycol)-terephthalate-poly (butylene terephthalate) PEOT/PBT scaffold through an intra-scaffold medium flow and the impact of this continuous medium flow on subsequent chondrocyte-scaffold culture. Eight cubic PEOT/PBT co-polymers (1 cm3) were assigned into two groups. In the semi-dynamic seeding group a continuous medium flow was created inside the scaffolds by a pump system. Around six million chondrocytes were harvested each day, suspended in 1 ml medium and delivered onto the scaffold through the perfusion for a sequential five days. Traditional chondrocytes directly seeding and static culture method was performed…

Nucleation and growth of biomimetic apatite layers on 3D plotted biodegradable polymeric scaffolds: Effect of static and dynamic coating conditions

Acta Biomaterialia 2009 Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 1626-1638

Apatite layers were grown on the surface of newly developed starch/polycaprolactone (SPCL)-based scaffolds by a 3D plotting technology. To produce the biomimetic coatings, a sodium silicate gel was used as nucleating agent, followed by immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. After growing a stable apatite layer for 7 days, the scaffolds were placed in SBF under static, agitated (80 strokes min−1) and circulating flow perfusion (Q = 4 ml min−1; tR = 15 s) for up to 14 days. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin-film X-ray diffraction….

Hierarchical starch‐based fibrous scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications

Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2009 Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 37-42

Fibrous structures mimicking the morphology of the natural extracellular matrix are considered promising scaffolds for tissue engineering. This work aims to develop a novel hierarchical starch-based scaffold. Such scaffolds were obtained by a combination of starch-polycaprolactone micro- and polycaprolactone nano-motifs, respectively produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and electrospinning techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography analysis showed the successful fabrication of a multilayer scaffold composed of parallel aligned microfibres in a grid-like arrangement, intercalated by a mesh-like structure with randomly distributed nanofibres (NFM). Human osteoblast-like cells were dynamically seeded on the scaffolds, using spinner flasks, and cultured for 7…

Evaluation of Photocrosslinked Lutrol Hydrogel for Tissue Printing Applications

Biomacromolecules 2009 Volume 10, Issue 7, Pages 1689-1696

Application of hydrogels in tissue engineering and innovative strategies such as organ printing, which is based on layered 3D deposition of cell-laden hydrogels, requires design of novel hydrogel matrices. Hydrogel demands for 3D printing include: 1) preservation of the printed shape after the deposition; 2) maintaining cell viability and cell function and 3) easy handling of the printed construct. In this study we analyze the applicability of a novel, photosensitive hydrogel (Lutrol) for printing of 3D structured bone grafts. We benefit from the fast temperature-responsive gelation ability of thermosensitive Lutrol-F127, ensuring organized 3D extrusion, and the additional stability provided by…

Formed 3D Bio-Scaffolds via Rapid Prototyping Technology

IFMBE Proceedings 2009 Volume 22, Pages 2200-2204

The construction of biomaterial scaffolds for cell seeding is now seen as the most common approach for producing artificial tissue as compared with cell self-assembly and Acellular matrix techniques. This paper describes the use of synthetic and natural polymeric material shaped into 3D biological matrices by using Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology. Recent advances in RP technology have greatly enhanced the range of biomaterials that can now be constructed into scaffolds, also allowing for maximized control of the pore size and architecture. Bioplotting is one such method which allows the dispensing of various biomaterials into a media bath which has similar…