3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers about in-vitro (150 results)

3D printing of silk fibroin-based hybrid scaffold treated with platelet rich plasma for bone tissue engineering

Bioactive Materials 2019 Volume 4, Pages 256-260

3D printing/bioprinting are promising techniques to fabricate scaffolds with well controlled and patient-specific structures and architectures for bone tissue engineering. In this study, we developed a composite bioink consisting of silk fibroin (SF), gelatin (GEL), hyaluronic acid (HA), and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and 3D bioprinted the silk fibroin-based hybrid scaffolds. The 3D bioprinted scaffolds with dual crosslinking were further treated with human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to generate PRP coated scaffolds. Live/Dead and MTT assays demonstrated that PRP treatment could obviously promote the cell growth and proliferation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (HADMSC). In addition, the treatment of PRP…

Design of a new 3D‐printed joint plug

Asia‐Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering 2019

This paper introduces a kit of parts as a novel three‐dimensional (3D)–printed joint plug, in which each of the parts function cooperatively to treat cartilage damage in joints of the human body (e.g., hips, wrists, elbow, knee, and ankle). Three required and one optional parts are involved in this plug. The first part is a 3D‐printed hard scaffold (bone portion) to accommodate bone cells, and the second is a 3D‐printed soft scaffold (cartilage portion) overlying the bone portion to accommodate chondrocytes. The third part of joint plug is a permeable membrane, termed film, to cover the entire plug to provide…

3D Bioprinting of the Sustained Drug Release Wound Dressing with Double-Crosslinked Hyaluronic-Acid-Based Hydrogels

Polymers 2019 Volume 11, Issue 10, Article 1584

Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility. HA can be Ultraviolet (UV)-crosslinked by modification with methacrylic anhydride (HA-MA) and crosslinked by modification with 3,3′-dithiobis(propionylhydrazide) (DTP) (HA-SH) via click reaction. In the study presented in this paper, a 3D-bioprinted, double-crosslinked, hyaluronic-acid-based hydrogel for wound dressing was proposed. The hydrogel was produced by mixing HA-MA and HA-SH at different weight ratios. The rheological test showed that the storage modulus (G’) of the HA-SH/HA-MA hydrogel increased with the increase in the HA-MA content. The hydrogel had a high swelling ratio and a high controlled degradation…

Employing PEG crosslinkers to optimize cell viability in gel phase bioinks and tailor post printing mechanical properties

Acta Biomaterialia 2019

The field of 3D bioprinting has rapidly grown, yet the fundamental ability to manipulate material properties has been challenging with current bioink methods. Here, we change bioink properties using our PEG cross-linking (PEGX) bioink method with the objective of optimizing cell viability while retaining control of mechanical properties of the final bioprinted construct. First, we investigate cytocompatible, covalent cross-linking chemistries for bioink synthesis (e.g. Thiol Michael type addition and bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction). We demonstrate these reactions are compatible with the bioink method, which results in high cell viability. The PEGX method is then exploited to optimize extruded…

3D printing of layered mesoporous bioactive glass/sodium alginate-sodium alginate scaffolds with controllable dual-drug release behaviors

Biomedical Materials 2019 Volume 14, Article 065011

Scaffolds with controlled drug release are valuable for bone tissue engineering, but constructing the scaffolds with controllable dual-drug release behaviors is still a challenge. In this study, layered mesoporous bioactive glass/sodium alginate-sodium alginate (MBG/SA–SA) scaffolds with controllable dual-drug release behaviors were fabricated by 3D printing. The porosity and compressive strength of three-dimensional (3D) printed MBG/SA–SA scaffolds by cross-linking are about 78% and 4.2 MPa, respectively. As two model drugs, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ibuprofen (IBU) were separately loaded in SA layer and MBG/SA layer, resulting in a relatively fast release of BSA and a sustained release of IBU. Furthermore,…

An oxygen-releasing device to improve the survival of mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering

Biofabrication 2019 Volume 11, Number 4, Article 045012

Supplying oxygen to inner areas of cell constructs to support cell proliferation and metabolism is a major challenge in tissue engineering involving stem cells. Developing devices that incorporate oxygen release materials to increase the availability of the localized oxygen supply is therefore key to addressing this limitation. Herein, we designed and developed a 3D-printed oxygen-releasing device composed of an alginate hydrogel scaffold combined with an oxygen-generating biomaterial (calcium peroxide) to improve the oxygen supply of the microenvironment for culturing adipose tissue-derived stem cells. The results demonstrated that the 3D-printed oxygen-releasing device alleviated hypoxia, maintained oxygen availability, and ensured proliferation of…

Bioprinting Schwann cell-laden scaffolds from low-viscosity hydrogel compositions

Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2019 Volume 7, Issue 29, Pages 4538-4551

3D bioprinting techniques have been attracting attention for tissue scaffold fabrication in nerve tissue engineering applications. However, due to the inherent complexity of nerve tissues, bioprinting scaffolds that can appropriately promote the regeneration of damaged tissues is still challenging. This paper presents our study on bioprinting Schwann cell-laden scaffolds from low-viscosity hydrogel compositions including RGD modified alginate, hyaluronic acid and fibrin, with a focus on investigating the printability of hydrogel compositions and characterizing the functions of printed scaffolds for potential use in nerve tissue regeneration. We assessed the rheological properties of hydrogel precursors via temperature, time and shear rate sweeps,…

Silk particles, microfibres and nanofibres: A comparative study of their functions in 3D printing hydrogel scaffolds

Materials Science and Engineering: C 2019 Volume 103, Article 109784

Silk, with highly crystalline structure and well-documented biocompatibility, is promising to be used as reinforcing material and build functionalized composite scaffolds. In the present study, we developed chitosan/silk composite scaffolds using silk particles, silk microfibres and nanofibres via 3D printing method. The three forms of silk fillers with varied shapes and dimensions were obtained via different processing methods and evaluated of their morphology, crystalline structure and thermal property. All silk fillers showed different degrees of improvement on printability in terms of ink rheology and printing shape fidelity. Different silk fillers led to different scaffold surface morphology and different roughness, while…

3D Printing of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds with Horizontal Pore and Composition Gradients

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2019

This work investigated a new 3D-printing methodology to prepare porous scaffolds containing horizontal pore and composition gradients. To achieve that, a multimaterial printing technology developed in our laboratory was adapted to incorporate pore gradients. Fibers were printed by welding segments with unique material compositions and fiber diameters. Particularly, we focused on the preparation of model composite poly(ε-caprolactone)-based scaffolds with radial gradients of particulate hydroxyapatite (HA) content (higher concentrations in the outer region of the scaffold) and porosity (higher in the inner region). The morphology of the scaffolds revealed that the methodology allowed the fabrication of discrete regions with compressive mechanical…

Effects of 3-dimensional Bioprinting Alginate/ Gelatin Hydrogel Scaffold Extract on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Journal of Endodontics 2019 Volume 45, Issue 6, Pages 706-715

Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is a nontraditional surface finishing method that finishes complex surface by pushing the abrasive media flow through the workpiece surface. The entrance effect that the material removal increases at the entrance of changing the cross-sectional flow channel is a difficult problem for AFM. In this paper, the effects of media rheological properties on the entrance effect are discussed. To explore the effects of the media’s viscoelasticity on the entrance effect, two sets of media with different viscoelasticity properties are adopted to study their rheological and machining performances in the designed flow channel with a contraction area….

Printability and Cell Viability in Bioprinting Alginate Dialdehyde- Gelatin Scaffolds

ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2019 Volume 5, Issue 6, Pages 2976-2987

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a promising technique used to fabricate scaffolds from hydrogels with living cells. However, the printability of hydrogels in bioprinting has not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize the printability and cell viability of alginate dialdehyde (ADA)-gelatin (Gel) hydrogels for bioprinting. ADA-Gel hydrogels of various concentrations were synthesized and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, along with rheological tests for measuring storage and loss moduli. Scaffolds (with an area of 11 × 11 mm) of 1, 2, and 13 layers were fabricated from ADA-Gel hydrogels using a 3D-bioplotter under printing conditions…

Quantitative ultrasound imaging of cell-laden hydrogels and printed constructs

Acta Biomaterialia 2019 Volume 91, Pages 173-185

In the present work we have revisited the application of quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) to cellular hydrogels, by using the reference phantom method (RPM) in combination with a local attenuation compensation algorithm. The investigated biological samples consisted of cell-laden collagen hydrogels with PC12 neural cells. These cell-laden hydrogels were used to calibrate the integrated backscattering coefficient (IBC) as a function of cell density, which was then used to generate parametric images of local cell density. The image resolution used for QUI and its impact on the relative IBC error was also investigated. Another important contribution of our work was the…

3D-printed ternary SiO2CaOP2O5 bioglass-ceramic scaffolds with tunable compositions and properties for bone regeneration

Ceramics International 2019 Volume 45, Issue 8, Pages 10997-11005

Simple ternary SiO2CaOP2O5 bioglasses proved sufficient osteogenesis capacity. In this study, the bioglasses were 3D printed into porous scaffolds and SiO2/CaO molar ratio was altered (from 90/5 to 60/35) to achieve tunable glass-ceramic compositions after thermal treatment. Scaffolds possessed interconnected porous structure with controllable porosities via 3D printing technique. In addition, microstructure and properties of mechanical strength, degradation, ion dissolution and apatite formation were investigated. Characterization results showed that higher content of SiO2 produced more homogeneous crystalline particles and sintering compactness, thus led to higher strength. For scaffolds with higher CaO content, more glasses were maintained and faster degradation rate…

Development of surface functionalization strategies for 3D‐printed polystyrene constructs

Journal of Biomedical Material Research, Part B: Applied Biomaterials 2019

There is a growing interest in 3D printing to fabricate culture substrates; however, the surface properties of the scaffold remain pertinent to elicit targeted and expected cell responses. Traditional 2D polystyrene (PS) culture systems typically require surface functionalization (oxidation) to facilitate and encourage cell adhesion. Determining the surface properties which enhance protein adhesion from media and cellular extracellular matrix (ECM) production remains the first step to translating 2D PS systems to a 3D culture surface. Here we show that the presence of carbonyl groups to PS surfaces correlated well with successful adhesion of ECM proteins and sustaining ECM production of…

Osteostatin potentiates the bioactivity of mesoporous glass scaffolds containing Zn2+ ions in human mesenchymal stem cells

Acta Biomaterialia 2019

There is an urgent need of biosynthetic bone grafts with enhanced osteogenic capacity. In this study, we describe the design of hierarchical meso-macroporous 3D-scaffolds based on mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), enriched with the peptide osteostatin and Zn2+ ions, and their osteogenic effect on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a preclinical strategy in bone regeneration. The MBG compositions investigated were 80%SiO2–15%CaO–5%P2O5 (in mol-%) Blank (BL), and two analogous glasses containing 4% ZnO (4ZN) and 5% ZnO (5ZN). By using additive fabrication techniques, scaffolds exhibiting hierarchical porosity: mesopores (around 4 nm), macropores (1–600 μm) and big channels (∼1000 μm), were prepared. These MBG scaffolds…

A method to deliver patterned electrical impulses to Schwann cells cultured on an artificial axon

Neural Regeneration Research 2019 Volume 14, Issue 6, Pages 1052-1059

Information from the brain travels back and forth along peripheral nerves in the form of electrical impulses generated by neurons and these impulses have repetitive patterns. Schwann cells in peripheral nerves receive molecular signals from axons to coordinate the process of myelination. There is evidence, however, that non-molecular signals play an important role in myelination in the form of patterned electrical impulses generated by neuronal activity. The role of patterned electrical impulses has been investigated in the literature using co-cultures of neurons and myelinating cells. The co-culturing method, however, prevents the uncoupling of the direct effect of patterned electrical impulses…

Hydroxyapatite /Collagen 3D printed Scaffolds and their Osteogenic Effects on hBMSCs

Tissue Engineering Part A 2019

3D printing provides a novel approach to repair bone defects using customized biomimetic tissue scaffolds. To make a bone substitute closest to natural bone structure and composition, two different types of hydroxyapatite, Nano hydroxyapatite (nHA) and deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), were dispersed into collagen (CoL) to prepare the bio-ink for 3D printing. In doing so, a porous architecture was manufactured with 3D printing technology. The physical and chemical properties of the materials were evaluated, including biocompatibility and effect on the osteogenic differentiation of the human bone marrow-derived mesenchyme stem cells (hBMSCs). The XPS, XRD, FTIR, and the mechanical analysis of…

Development of 3D-printed PLGA/TiO2 nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications

Materials Science and Engineering: C 2019 Volume 96, Pages 105-113

Porous scaffolds were 3D-printed using poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)/TiO2 composite (10:1 weight ratio) for bone tissue engineering applications. Addition of TiO2 nanoparticles improved the compressive modulus of scaffolds. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed an increase in both glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition onset of the composite compared to pure PLGA. Furthermore, addition of TiO2 was found to enhance the wettability of the surface evidenced by reducing the contact angle from 90.5 ± 3.2 to 79.8 ± 2.4 which is in favor of cellular attachment and activity. The obtained results revealed that PLGA/TiO2 scaffolds significantly improved osteoblast proliferation compared to…

3D-printed scaffolds of biomineralized hydroxyapatite nanocomposite on silk fibroin for improving bone regeneration

Applied Surface Science 2019 Volumes 467–468, Pages 345-353

In an attempt to fabricate biomimetic bone repair scaffolds and improve bone regeneration point of view, we have three dimensionally printed porous scaffolds with biomineralized hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin nanocomposites. SF/HA composite particles were firstly produced via an in-situ mineral precipitation process when SF molecules were served as templates.. Microscopy observations of SF/HA showed homogeneous morphology and narrowly distributed size. By using sodium alginate (SA) as paste binder, scaffolds with different contents of SF/HA were subsequently 3D-printed under proper conditions. All the scaffolds were porous with 3D interconnected large pores (size ~400 μm) and an overall porosity about 70%, combined with a relative…

Polyester-based ink platform with tunable bioactivity for 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds

Biomaterials Science 2019 Volume 7, Pages 560-570

In this work, we synthesized a novel polymeric biomaterial platform with tunable functionalizability for extrusion-based 3D printing. Biodegradable polymers were synthesized using 4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (HTy), which is derived from Tyrosol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid. p-Phenylenediacetic acid (PDA) was introduced to enhance crystallinity. To enable functionalizability without deteriorating printability, glutamic acid derivatives were introduced into the polymer design, forming copolymers including poly(HTy-co-45%PDA-co-5%Gluhexenamide ester) (HP5GH), poly(HTy-co-45%PDA-co-5%Glupentynamide ester) (HP5GP), and poly(HTy-co-45%PDA-co-5%BocGlu ester) (HP5BG). The resulting polymers have: two melting temperatures (125–131 °C and 141–147 °C), Young’s moduli of 1.9–2.4 GPa, and print temperatures of 170–190 °C. The molecular weight (Mw) loss due to hydrolytic…

Reversible physical crosslinking strategy with optimal temperature for 3D bioprinting of human chondrocyte-laden gelatin methacryloyl bioink

Journal of Biomaterials Applications 2018 Volume 33, Issue 5, Pages 609-618

Gelatin methacryloyl is a promising material in tissue engineering and has been widely studied in three-dimensional bioprinting. Although gelatin methacryloyl possesses excellent biocompatibility and tunable mechanical properties, its poor printability/processability has hindered its further applications. In this study, we report a reversible physical crosslinking strategy for precise deposition of human chondrocyte-laden gelatin methacryloyl bioink at low concentration without any sacrificial material by using extrusive three-dimensional bioprinting. The precise printing temperature was determined by the rheological properties of gelatin methacryloyl with temperature. Ten percent (w/v) gelatin methacryloyl was chosen as the printing formula due to highest biocompatibility in three-dimensional cell cultures…

Coating 3D Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffolds with Nanocellulose Promotes Growth and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Biomacromolecules 2018 Voluem 19, Issue 11, Pages 4307-4319

3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) has potential as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering, but the hydrophobic surface may hinder optimal cell responses. The surface properties can be improved by coating the scaffold with cellulose nanofibrils material (CNF), a multiscale hydrophilic biocompatible biomaterial derived from wood. In this study, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on tissue culture plates (TCP) and 3D printed PCL scaffolds coated with CNF. Cellular responses to the surfaces (viability, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation) were documented. CNF significantly enhanced the hydrophilic properties of PCL scaffolds and promoted protein adsorption. Live/dead staining and lactate dehydrogenase…

Tough and Processable Hydrogels Based on Lignin and Hydrophilic Polyurethane

ACS Applied Bio Materials 2018 Volume 1, Issue 6, Pages 2073–2081

Lignin is a low-cost, natural polymer with abundant polar sites on its backbone that can be utilized for physical cross-linking of polymers. Here, we use lignin for additional cross-linking of hydrophilic polyether-based polyurethane (HPU) hydrogels, aiming to improve their mechanical properties and processability. Without reducing the swelling, simple addition of 2.5 wt % lignin increases the fracture energy and Young’s modulus of HPU hydrogels from, respectively, 1540 ± 40 to 2050 ± 50 J m–2 and 1.29 ± 0.06 to 2.62 ± 0.84 MPa. Lignin also increases the lap shear adhesiveness of hydrogels and induces an immediate load recovery of…

Trophoblast–endothelium signaling involves angiogenesis and apoptosis in a dynamic bioprinted placenta model

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2018 Volume 116, Issue 1, Pages 181-192

Trophoblast invasion and remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries are required for pregnancy success. Aberrant endothelium–trophoblast crosstalk may lead to preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication that has serious effects on both the mother and the baby. However, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in this pathology remains elementary because the current in vitro models cannot describe trophoblast–endothelium interactions under dynamic culture. In this study, we developed a dynamic three‐dimensional (3D) placenta model by bioprinting trophoblasts and an endothelialized lumen in a perfusion bioreactor. We found the 3D printed perfusion bioreactor system significantly augmented responses of endothelial cells by encouraging network formations…

3D Printing Bioactive PLGA Scaffolds Using DMSO as a Removable Solvent

Bioprinting 2018 Volume 10, June 2018, Article e00038

Present bioprinting techniques lack the methodology to print with bioactive materials that retain their biological functionalities. This constraint is due to the fact that extrusion-based printing of synthetic polymers is commonly performed at very high temperatures in order to achieve desired mechanical properties and printing resolutions. Consequently, current methodology prevents printing scaffolds embedded with bioactive molecules, such as growth factors. With the wide use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine research, the integration of growth factors into 3D printed scaffolds is critical because it can allow for inducible MSC differentiation. We have successfully incorporated growth factors into extrusion…

Voltaglue Bioadhesives Energized with Interdigitated 3D‐Graphene Electrodes

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2018 Volume 7, Issue 21, Article 1800538

Soft tissue fixation of implant and bioelectrodes relies on mechanical means (e.g., sutures, staples, and screws), with associated complications of tissue perforation, scarring, and interfacial stress concentrations. Adhesive bioelectrodes address these shortcomings with voltage cured carbene‐based bioadhesives, locally energized through graphene interdigitated electrodes. Electrorheometry and adhesion structure activity relationships are explored with respect to voltage and electrolyte on bioelectrodes synthesized from graphene 3D‐printed onto resorbable polyester substrates. Adhesive leachates effects on in vitro metabolism and human‐derived platelet‐rich plasma response serves to qualitatively assess biological response. The voltage activated bioadhesives are found to have gelation times of 60 s or less…

3D Printing of Silk Particle-Reinforced Chitosan Hydrogel Structures and Their Properties

ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2018 Volume 4, Issue 8, Pages 3036-3046

Hydrogel bioprinting is a major area of focus in the field of tissue engineering. However, 3D printed hydrogel scaffolds often suffer from low printing accuracy and poor mechanical properties because of their soft nature and tendency to shrink. This makes it challenging to process them into structural materials. In this study, natural chitosan hydrogel scaffolds were, for the first time, reinforced with milled silk particles and fabricated by 3D printing. Compared with pure chitosan scaffolds, the addition of silk particles resulted in up to a 5-fold increase in compressive modulus as well as significantly better printing accuracy and improved scaffold…

Mechanically robust cryogels with injectability and bioprinting supportability for adipose tissue engineering

Acta Biomaterialia 2018 Volume 74, Pages 131-142

Bioengineered adipose tissues have gained increased interest as a promising alternative to autologous tissue flaps and synthetic adipose fillers for soft tissue augmentation and defect reconstruction in clinic. Although many scaffolding materials and biofabrication methods have been investigated for adipose tissue engineering in the last decades, there are still challenges to recapitulate the appropriate adipose tissue microenvironment, maintain volume stability, and induce vascularization to achieve long-term function and integration. In the present research, we fabricated cryogels consisting of methacrylated gelatin, methacrylated hyaluronic acid, and 4arm poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (PEG-4A) by using cryopolymerization. The cryogels were repeatedly injectable and stretchable, and…

Response of hPDLSCs on 3D printed PCL/PLGA composite scaffolds in vitro

Molecular Medicine Reports 2018 Volume 18 Issue 2, Pages 1335-1344

Three‑dimensional printed (3DP) scaffolds have become an excellent resource in alveolar bone regeneration. However, selecting suitable printable materials remains a challenge. In the present study, 3DP scaffolds were fabricated using three different ratios of poly (ε‑caprolactone) (PCL) and poly‑lactic‑co‑glycolic acid (PLGA), which were 0.1PCL/0.9PLGA, 0.5PCL/0.5PLGA and 0.9PCL/0.1PLGA. The surface characteristics and degradative properties of the scaffolds, and the response of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) on the scaffolds, were assessed to examine the preferable ratio of PCL and PLGA for alveolar bone regeneration. The results demonstrated that the increased proportion of PLGA markedly accelerated the degradation, smoothed the surface…

3D printed mesoporous bioactive glass/metal-organic framework scaffolds with antitubercular drug delivery

Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2018 Volume 272, Pages 24-30

Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with sustained drug delivery are pursued for osteoarticular tuberculosis therapy after surgery. In this study, mesoporous bioactive glass/metal-organic framework (MBG/MOF) scaffolds with sustained antitubercular drug release have been fabricated by 3D printing. The results showed that the MBG/MOF scaffolds possess macropores of ca. 400 μm and enhanced compressive strength of 3–7 MPa, also exhibited good biocompatibility and apatite forming ability in vitro. Furthermore, the drug release rate and pH microenvironment of the MBG/MOF scaffolds could be controlled due to the MOF degradation. These results indicated that the 3D printed MBG/MOF scaffolds are promising for treating osteoarticular tuberculosis.

3D bioprinting of scaffolds with living Schwann cells for potential nerve tissue engineering applications

Biofabrication 2018 Volume 10, Number 3, Article 035014

Three-dimensional bioprinting of biomaterials shows great potential for producing cell-encapsulated scaffolds to repair nerves after injury or disease. For this, preparation of biomaterials and bioprinting itself are critical to create scaffolds with both biological and mechanical properties appropriate for nerve regeneration, yet remain unachievable. This paper presents our study on bioprinting Schwann cell-encapsulated scaffolds using composite hydrogels of alginate, fibrin, hyaluronic acid, and/or RGD peptide, for nerve tissue engineering applications. For the preparation of composite hydrogels, suitable hydrogel combinations were identified and prepared by adjusting the concentration of fibrin based on the morphological spreading of Schwann cells. In bioprinting, the…

Label free process monitoring of 3D bioprinted engineered constructs via dielectric impedance spectroscopy

Biofabrication 2018 Volume 10, Article 035012

Biofabrication processes can affect biological quality attributes of encapsulated cells within constructs. Currently, assessment of the fabricated constructs is performed offline by subjecting the constructs to destructive assays that require staining and sectioning. This drawback limits the translation of biofabrication processes to industrial practice. In this work, we investigate the dielectric response of viable cells encapsulated in bioprinted 3D hydrogel constructs to an applied alternating electric field as a label-free non-destructive monitoring approach. The relationship between β-dispersion parameters (permittivity change—Δε, Cole–Cole slope factor—α, critical polarization frequency—f c ) over the frequency spectrum and critical cellular quality attributes are investigated. Results…

3D fiber deposited polymeric scaffolds for external auditory canal wall

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2018 Volume 29, Issue 5, Article 63

The external auditory canal (EAC) is an osseocartilaginous structure extending from the auricle to the eardrum, which can be affected by congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases, thus reconstructive materials are needed. Current biomaterial-based approaches for the surgical reconstruction of EAC posterior wall still suffer from resorption (biological) and extrusion (synthetic). In this study, 3D fiber deposited scaffolds based on poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) were designed and fabricated to replace the EAC wall. Fiber diameter and scaffold porosity were optimized, leading to 200 ± 33 µm and 55% ± 5%, respectively. The mechanical properties were evaluated, resulting in a Young’s modulus of 25.1 ± 7.0 MPa. Finally, the EAC…

Vascularization of Natural and Synthetic Bone Scaffolds

Cell transplantation 2018 Volume 27, Issue 8, Pages 1269–1280

Vascularization of engineered bone tissue is critical for ensuring its survival after implantation. In vitro pre-vascularization of bone grafts with endothelial cells is a promising strategy to improve implant survival. In this study, we pre-cultured human smooth muscle cells (hSMCs) on bone scaffolds for 3 weeks followed by seeding of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which produced a desirable environment for microvasculature formation. The sequential cell-seeding protocol was successfully applied to both natural (decellularized native bone, or DB) and synthetic (3D-printed Hyperelastic “Bone” scaffolds, or HB) scaffolds, demonstrating a comprehensive platform for developing natural and synthetic-based in vitro vascularized…

Three-dimensional printing of β-tricalcium phosphate/calcium silicate composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Bio-Design and Manufacturing 2018 Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 146-156

Bioactive scaffolds with interconnected porous structures are essential for guiding cell growth and new bone formation. In this work, we successfully fabricated three-dimensional (3D) porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/calcium silicate (CS) composite scaffolds with different ratios by 3D printing technique and further investigated the physiochemical properties, in vitro apatite mineralization properties and degradability of porous β-TCP/CS scaffolds. Moreover, a series of in vitro cell experiments including the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cells were conducted to testify their biological performances. The results showed that 3D printed β-TCP/CS scaffolds possessed of controllable internal porous structures and external…

3D-printed gelatin scaffolds of differing pore geometry modulate hepatocyte function and gene expression

Acta Biomaterialia 2018 Volume 69, Pages 63-70

Three dimensional (3D) printing is highly amenable to the fabrication of tissue-engineered organs of a repetitive microstructure such as the liver. The creation of uniform and geometrically repetitive tissue scaffolds can also allow for the control over cellular aggregation and nutrient diffusion. However, the effect of differing geometries, while controlling for pore size, has yet to be investigated in the context of hepatocyte function. In this study, we show the ability to precisely control pore geometry of 3D-printed gelatin scaffolds. An undifferentiated hepatocyte cell line (HUH7) demonstrated high viability and proliferation when seeded on 3D-printed scaffolds of two different geometries….

Engineering patient-specific bioprinted constructs for treatment of degenerated intervertebral disc

Materials Today Communications 2018 In Press, Corrected Proof

Lower back pain (LBP), which is strongly associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, is one of the most frequently reported age- and work-related disorder in actual society, leading to a huge socio-economic impact worldwide. The current treatments have poor clinical outcomes and do not consider each patient needs. Thus, there is a growing interest in the potential of personalized cell-based tissue engineering (TE) approaches aimed to regenerate the damaged IVD and efficiently restore full disc function. In this work, a bioink composed by silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel combined with elastin was used to bioprint patient-specific substitutes mimicking IVD ultrastructure, in…

3D Bioprinting of Breast Cancer Models for Drug Resistance Study

ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2018 Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 4401-4411

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ADMSC) are one of the major stromal cells in the breast cancer microenvironment that promote cancer progression. Previous studies on the effects of ADMSC on breast cancer metastasis and drug resistance, using two-dimensional (2D) cultures, remained inconclusive. In the present study, we compared cocultured ADMSC and human epidermal receptor 2 positive breast primary breast cancer cells (21PT) in 2D and three-dimensional (3D) cultures and then examined their response to doxorubicin (DOX). We examined 3D bioprinted constructs with breast cancer cells in the middle and ADMSC in the edge region, which were made by using dual hydrogel-based…

Rheological, In Situ Printability and Cell Viability Analysis of Hydrogels for Muscle Tissue Regeneration

Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference 2018 Pages 835-846

Advancements in additive manufacturing have made it possible to fabricate biologically relevant architectures from a wide variety of materials. Hydrogels have garnered increased attention for the fabrication of muscle tissue engineering constructs due to their resemblance to living tissue and ability to function as cell carriers. However, there is a lack of systematic approaches to screen bioinks based on their inherent properties, such as rheology, printability and cell viability. Furthermore, this study takes the critical first-step for connecting in-process sensor data with construct quality by studying the influence of printing parameters. Alginate-chitosan hydrogels were synthesized and subjected to a systematic…

Fast Setting Silk Fibroin Bioink for Bioprinting of Patient-Specific Memory-Shape Implants

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2017 Volume 6, Issue 22, 1701021

The pursuit for the “perfect” biomimetic and personalized implant for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration remains a big challenge. 3D printing technology that makes use of a novel and promising biomaterials can be part of the solution. In this study, a fast setting enzymatic-crosslinked silk fibroin (SF) bioink for 3D bioprinting is developed. Their properties are fine-tuned and different structures with good resolution, reproducibility, and reliability can be fabricated. Many potential applications exist for the SF bioinks including 3D bioprinted scaffolds and patient-specific implants exhibiting unique characteristics such as good mechanical properties, memory-shape feature, suitable degradation, and tunable pore architecture and morphology.

3D Bio-Plotted Tricalcium Phosphate/Zirconia Composite Scaffolds to Heal Large Size Bone Defects

Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics 2017 Vol. 14, No. 2, pages 125-136

β-TCP-Zirconia scaffolds with different architectures were fabricated by means of 3D-Bioplotting in order to enhance the mechanical and in-vitro ability of the scaffold to heal large size bone defects. In the present study scaffold architecture with different strand orientations (0o-90o, 0o-45o-135o-180o, 0o-108o-216o and 0o-72o-144o-36o-108o) were fabricated, characterized and evaluated for mechanical strength and cell proliferation ability. β-TCP powder (25µm) and PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) was acquired from Fisher Scientific, India. Zirconia (18 to 32 µm) was procured from Lobachemie, India. In brief 7.5%, PVA in distilled water was used as a binder and was mixed with 10 grams of (70/30) TCP-Zirconia…

Evaluation of PBS Treatment and PEI Coating Effects on Surface Morphology and Cellular Response of 3D-Printed Alginate Scaffolds

Journal of Functional Biomaterials 2017 Volume 8, Issue 4, Article 48

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on the surface morphology and cellular response of the printed scaffolds. In our study, sterile alginate was prepared by means of the freeze-drying method and then, used to prepare the hydrogel for 3D printing into calcium chloride, forming 3D scaffolds. Scaffolds were treated with PBS for a time period of two days and seven days, respectively, and PEI…

3D printing of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Calcium-polyphosphate microparticles encapsulated by polycaprolactone

Acta Biomaterialia 2017 Volume 64, Pages 377-388

Here we describe the formulation of a morphogenetically active bio-ink consisting of amorphous microparticles (MP) prepared from Ca2+ and the physiological inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP). Those MP had been fortified by mixing with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) to allow 3D-bioprinting. The resulting granular PCL/Ca-polyP-MP hybrid material, liquefied by short-time heating to 100 °C, was used for the 3D-printing of tissue-like scaffolds formed by strands with a thickness of 400 µm and a stacked architecture leaving ≈0.5 mm2-sized open holes enabling cell migration. The printed composite scaffold turned out to combine suitable biomechanical properties (Young’s modulus of 1.60 ± 0.1 GPa; Martens hardness of 153 ± 28 MPa), matching those of cortical…

Imaging stem cell distribution, growth, migration, and differentiation in 3-D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using mesoscopic fluorescence tomography

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2017 Volume 115, Issue 1, Pages 257-265

Regenerative medicine has emerged as an important discipline that aims to repair injury or replace damaged tissues or organs by introducing living cells or functioning tissues. Successful regenerative medicine strategies will likely depend upon a simultaneous optimization strategy for the design of biomaterials, cell-seeding methods, cell-biomaterial interactions and molecular signaling within the engineered tissues. It remains a challenge to image three-dimensional (3-D) structures and functions of the cell-seeded scaffold in mesoscopic scale (>2∼3 mm). In this study, we utilized angled fluorescence laminar optical tomography (aFLOT), which allows depth-resolved molecular characterization of engineered tissues in 3-D to investigate cell viability, migration and…

UV-assisted 3D bioprinting of nano-reinforced hybrid cardiac patch for myocardial tissue engineering

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2017 Volume: 24 Issue 2, Pages 74-88

Biofabrication of cell supportive cardiac patches that can be directly implanted on myocardial infarct is a potential solution for myocardial infarction repair. Ideally, cardiac patches should be able to mimic myocardium extracellular matrix for rapid integration with the host tissue, raising the need to develop cardiac constructs with complex features. In particular, cardiac patches should be electrically conductive, mechanically robust and elastic, biologically active and pre-vascularized.. In this study, we aim to biofabricate a nano-reinforced hybrid cardiac patch laden with human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) with improved electrical, mechanical and biological behavior. A safe UV exposure time with insignificant…

Tailorable Surface Morphology of 3D Scaffolds by Combining Additive Manufacturing with Thermally Induced Phase Separation

Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2017 Volume 38, Article 1700186

The functionalization of biomaterials substrates used for cell culture is gearing towards an increasing control over cell activity. Although a number of biomaterials have been successfully modified by different strategies to display tailored physical and chemical surface properties, it is still challenging to step from 2D substrates to 3D scaffolds with instructive surface properties for cell culture and tissue regeneration. In this study, additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation are combined to create 3D scaffolds with tunable surface morphology from polymer gels. Surface features vary depending on the gel concentration, the exchanging temperature, and the nonsolvent used. When preosteoblasts…

[Gelatin/alginate hydrogel scaffolds prepared by 3D bioprinting promotes cell adhesion and proliferation of human dental pulp cells in vitro]

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao (Journal of Southern Medical University) 2017 Volume 37, Issue 5, Pages 668-672

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of gelatin/alginate hydrogel scaffolds prepared by 3D bioprinting in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and compare the cell adhesion and proliferation of the cells seeded in the biomaterial using two different methods. METHODS: HDPCs isolated by tissue block culture and enzyme digestion were cultured and passaged. Gelatin/alginate hydrogel scaffolds were printed using a bioplotter, and the cytotoxicity of the aqueous extracts of the scaffold material was tested in the third passage of HDPCs using cell counting kit-8. Scanning electron microscopy and trypan blue were used to assess the adhesion and proliferation of the cells seeded…

3D Bioprinting Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Constructs for In Situ Cell Proliferation and Successive Multilineage Differentiation

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2017 Volume 6, Issue 17, Article 1700175

The ability to create 3D tissues from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is poised to revolutionize stem cell research and regenerative medicine, including individualized, patient-specific stem cell-based treatments. There are, however, few examples of tissue engineering using iPSCs. Their culture and differentiation is predominantly planar for monolayer cell support or induction of self-organizing embryoids (EBs) and organoids. Bioprinting iPSCs with advanced biomaterials promises to augment efforts to develop 3D tissues, ideally comprising direct-write printing of cells for encapsulation, proliferation, and differentiation. Here, such a method, employing a clinically amenable polysaccharide-based bioink, is described as the first example of bioprinting human…

Fabrication and Evaluation of Electrospun, 3D-Bioplotted, and Combination of Electrospun/3D-Bioplotted Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications

BioMed Research International 2017 Volume 2017, Article ID 6956794

Electrospun scaffolds provide a dense framework of nanofibers with pore sizes and fiber diameters that closely resemble the architecture of native extracellular matrix. However, it generates limited three-dimensional structures of relevant physiological thicknesses. 3D printing allows digitally controlled fabrication of three-dimensional single/multimaterial constructs with precisely ordered fiber and pore architecture in a single build. However, this approach generally lacks the ability to achieve submicron resolution features to mimic native tissue. The goal of this study was to fabricate and evaluate 3D printed, electrospun, and combination of 3D printed/electrospun scaffolds to mimic the native architecture of heterogeneous tissue. We assessed their…

Extraction and characterization of collagen from Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic squid and its potential application in hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering

Materials Science and Engineering: C 2017 Volume 78, 1 September 2017, Pages 787–795

Collagen is the most abundant protein found in mammals and it exhibits a low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and biodegradability when compared with others natural polymers. For this reason, it has been explored for the development of biologically instructive biomaterials with applications for tissue substitution and regeneration. Marine origin collagen has been pursued as an alternative to the more common bovine and porcine origins. This study focused on squid (Teuthoidea: Cephalopoda), particularly the Antarctic squid Kondakovia longimana and the Sub-Antarctic squid Illex argentinus as potential collagen sources. In this study, collagen has been isolated from the skins of the squids using…

Integrated 3D printed scaffolds and electrical stimulation for enhancing primary human cardiomyocyte cultures

Bioprinting 2017 Volume 6, Pages 18-24

3D printing technology is driving innovation in a wide variety of disciplines, and is beginning to make inroads into the fields of medicine and biology. In particular, 3D printing is being increasingly utilized for the design and fabrication of three-dimensional cell culture scaffolds. This technology allows for scaffolds to be produced rapidly while maintaining a great deal of control over the matrix architecture. This paper presents an effective technique for rapidly designing and fabricating scaffolds from silicone rubber and polycaprolactone (PCL), appropriate for primary human cardiomyocyte cell cultures. Additionally, a stimulation device is developed and presented which can provide 6…

Polycaprolactone-and polycaprolactone/ceramic-based 3D-bioplotted porous scaffolds for bone regeneration: A comparative study

Materials Science and Engineering: C 2017 Volume 79, Issue 1, Pages 326–335

One of the critical challenges that scaffolding faces in the organ and tissue regeneration field lies in mimicking the structure, and the chemical and biological properties of natural tissue. A high-level control over the architecture, mechanical properties and composition of the materials in contact with cells is essential to overcome such challenge. Therefore, definition of the method, materials and parameters for the production of scaffolds during the fabrication stage is critical. With the recent emergence of rapid prototyping (RP), it is now possible to create three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with the essential characteristics for the proliferation and regeneration of tissues, such…

Effects of shear stress gradients on Ewing sarcoma cells using 3D printed scaffolds and flow perfusion

ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering 2017 Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 347–356

In this work, we combined three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with flow perfusion bioreactors to evaluate the gradient effects of scaffold architecture and mechanical stimulation, respectively, on tumor cell phenotype. As cancer biologists elucidate the relevance of 3D in vitro tumor models within the drug discovery pipeline, it has become more compelling to model the tumor microenvironment and its impact on tumor cells. In particular, permeability gradients within solid tumors are inherently complex and difficult to accurately model in vitro. However, 3D printing can be used to design scaffolds with complex architecture, and flow perfusion can simulate mechanical stimulation within the tumor…

Development of a 3D Printed, Bioengineered Placenta Model to Evaluate the Role of Trophoblast Migration in Preeclampsia

ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering 2016 Volume 2, Issue 10, Pages 1817–1826

Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Current research suggests that the impaired trophoblastic invasion of maternal spiral arteries contributes significantly to the development of PE. However, the pathobiology of PE remains poorly understood, and there is a lack of treatment options largely due to ineffective experimental models. Utilizing the capability of bioprinting and shear wave elastography, we developed a 3D, bioengineered placenta model (BPM) to study and quantify cell migration. Through BPM, we evaluated the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the migratory behavior of trophoblast and human mesenchymal stem cells. Our…

Three-dimensional printing of cerium-incorporated mesoporous calcium-silicate scaffolds for bone repair

Journal of Materials Science 2016 Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 836-844

In the study, we developed hierarchical composite scaffolds by 3D printing technique with mesoporous CaSiO3 containing controlled amounts of Ce substitution in Ca–Si system. The scaffolds were porous with 3D interconnected large pores (size ~400 μm) and an overall porosity above 70 %, combined with a relative high compressive strength (~7 MPa). These properties are essential for enhancing bone ingrowth in tissue engineering. The in vitro biological properties of apatite formation, cell proliferation, and differentiation were characterized on CeO2-MCS scaffolds and MCS scaffolds. Results indicated that CeO2-MCS scaffolds induced similar apatite deposition and cell attachment of human bone marrow stromal…

Bioprinted fibrin-factor XIII-hyaluronate hydrogel scaffolds with encapsulated Schwann cells and their in vitro characterization for use in nerve regeneration

Bioprinting 2016 Volume 5, March 2017, Pages 1-9

The blood clotting protein fibrin contains cell-binding domains, providing potential advantage for the fabrication of tissue repair scaffolds and for live cell encapsulation. However, fabrication of fibrin scaffolds with encapsulated cells using three dimensional (3D) printing has proven challenging due to the mechanical difficulties of fabricating protein hydrogel scaffolds with defined microstructure. For example, extrusion based 3D printing of fibrin is generally unfeasible because of the low viscosity of precursor fibrinogen solution. Here we describe a novel technique for bioprinting of fibrin scaffolds by extruding fibrinogen solution into thrombin solution, utilizing hyaluronic acid (HA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to increase…

3D bioprinting of BM-MSCs-loaded ECM biomimetic hydrogels for in vitro neocartilage formation

Biofabrication 2016 Volume 8, Issue 3, 035002

In this work we demonstrate how to print 3D biomimetic hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering with high cell density (>107 cells ml−1), high cell viability (85 ÷ 90%) and high printing resolution (≈100 μm) through a two coaxial-needles system. The scaffolds were composed of modified biopolymers present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage, namely gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA), chondroitin sulfate amino ethyl methacrylate (CS-AEMA) and hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HAMA). The polymers were used to prepare three photocurable bioinks with increasing degree of biomimicry: (i) GelMA, (ii) GelMA + CS-AEMA and (iii) GelMA + CS-AEMA + HAMA. Alginate was added…

3D Printing of Porous Cell-Laden Hydrogel Constructs for Potential Applications in Cartilage Tissue Engineering

ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering 2016 Volume 2, Issue 7, Pages 1200–1210

Hydrogels are particularly attractive as scaffolding materials for cartilage tissue engineering because their high water content closely mimics the native extracellular matrix (ECM). Hydrogels can also provide a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment for homogeneously suspended cells that retains their rounded morphology and thus facilitates chondrogenesis in cartilage tissue engineering. However, fabricating hydrogel scaffolds or cell-laden hydrogel constructs with a predesigned external shape and internal structure that does not collapse remains challenging because of the low viscosity and high water content of hydrogel precursors. Here, we present a study on the fabrication of (cell-laden) alginate hydrogel constructs using a 3D bioplotting system…

Using synchrotron radiation inline phase-contrast imaging computed tomography to visualize three-dimensional printed hybrid constructs for cartilage tissue engineering

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 2016 Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 802-812

Synchrotron radiation inline phase-contrast imaging combined with computed tomography (SR-inline-PCI-CT) offers great potential for non-invasive characterization and three-dimensional visualization of fine features in weakly absorbing materials and tissues. For cartilage tissue engineering, the biomaterials and any associated cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) that is secreted over time are difficult to image using conventional absorption-based imaging techniques. For example, three-dimensional printed polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate/cell hybrid constructs have low, but different, refractive indices and thicknesses. This paper presents a study on the optimization and utilization of inline-PCI-CT for visualizing the components of three-dimensional printed PCL/alginate/cell hybrid constructs for cartilage tissue engineering. First, histological analysis…

Conductive Composite Fibres from Reduced Graphene Oxide and Polypyrrole Nanoparticles

Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2016 Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 1142-1179

Continuous composite fibres composed of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at different mass ratios were fabricated using a single step wet-spinning approach. The electrical conductivity of the composite fibres increased significantly with the addition of rGO. The mechanical properties of the composite fibres also improved by the addition of rGO sheets compared to fibres containing only PPy. The ultimate tensile strength of the fibres increased with the proportion of rGO mass present. The elongation at break was greatest for the composite fibre containing equal mass ratios of PPy nanoparticles and rGO sheets. L929 fibroblasts seeded onto fibres…

Exploring the Potential of Starch/Polycaprolactone Aligned Magnetic Responsive Scaffolds for Tendon Regeneration

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2016 Volume 5, Issue 2, pages 213–222

The application of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in tissue engineering (TE) approaches opens several new research possibilities in this field, enabling a new generation of multifunctional constructs for tissue regeneration. This study describes the development of sophisticated magnetic polymer scaffolds with aligned structural features aimed at applications in tendon tissue engineering (TTE). Tissue engineering magnetic scaffolds are prepared by incorporating iron oxide MNPs into a 3D structure of aligned SPCL (starch and polycaprolactone) fibers fabricated by rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The 3D architecture, composition, and magnetic properties are characterized. Furthermore, the effect of an externally applied magnetic field is investigated on…

Material design and photo-regulated hydrolytic degradation behavior of tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated via 3D fiber deposition

Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2016 Volume 5, Pages 329-340

An ideal behavior of a tissue engineering scaffold is that it degrades and reshapes at a rate that matches the formation of new tissues. However, this ideal situation may not occur as the scaffold often undergoes too slow or too fast degradation. To test the promise of the active control of scaffold degradation, in this work, a photo/water dual-degradable porous scaffold was designed and fabricated using a 3D fiber deposition (3DF) system from a linear biopolymer (named PLANB) that combined the o-nitrobenzyl linkages and hydrolysable ester bone in the polymer chains. The chemical structure, molecular weight and polydispersity of PLANB…

The effect of calcium sulfate incorporation on physiochemical and biological properties of 3D-printed mesoporous calcium silicate cement scaffolds

Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2016 Volume 241, Issue 15, Pages 11–20

Development of 3D porous scaffolds with proper mechanical strength is crucial in bone tissue engineering. In this study, calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) cement was functionally incorporated into mesoporous calcium silicate (MCS) through a 3D printing technique in order to improve the scaffold strength. Compared to printed MCS scaffolds, the characterizations revealed that 20% CSH incorporation had enhanced their compressive strength by 2 times via 4 weeks’ hydration. Furthermore, CSH incorporation prevented the fast pH value rise and achieved a balanced degradation rate. SEM observations showed a good apatite formation on the surfaces of both MCS and MCS/CSH scaffolds. Cellular experiments…

3D scaffold with effective multidrug sequential release against bacteria biofilm

Acta Biomaterialia 2016 Volume 49, Pages 113–126

Bone infection is a feared complication following surgery or trauma that remains as an extremely difficult disease to deal with. So far, the outcome of therapy could be improved with the design of 3D implants, which combine the merits of osseous regeneration and local multidrug therapy so as to avoid bacterial growth, drug resistance and the feared side effects. Herein, hierarchical 3D multidrug scaffolds based on nanocomposite bioceramic and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) prepared by rapid prototyping with an external coating of gelatin-glutaraldehyde (Gel-Glu) have been fabricated. These 3D scaffolds contain three antimicrobial agents (rifampin, levofloxacin and vancomycin), which have been…

3D silicon doped hydroxyapatite scaffolds decorated with Elastin-like Recombinamers for bone regenerative medicine

Acta Biomaterialia 2016 Volume 45, Pages 349–356

The current study reports on the manufacturing by rapid prototyping technique of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on silicon substituted hydroxyapatite with Elastin-like Recombinamers (ELRs) functionalized surfaces. Silicon doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA), with Ca10(PO4)5.7(SiO4)0.3(OH)1.7h0.3 nominal formula, was surface functionalized with two different types of polymers designed by genetic engineering: ELR-RGD that contain cell attachment specific sequences and ELR-SNA15/RGD with both hydroxyapatite and cells domains that interact with the inorganic phase and with the cells, respectively. These hybrid materials were subjected to in vitro assays in order to clarify if the ELRs coating improved the well-known biocompatible and bone regeneration properties of calcium…

Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass/alginate composite scaffolds by a self-crosslinking processing for bone regeneration

RSC Advances 2016 Volume 6, Pages 91201-91208

The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize self-crosslinked bioactive glass/alginate composite scaffolds, as a kind of potential biomaterial for bone regeneration. The scaffolds were fabricated through a self-crosslinking process of alginate by bioactive glass microspheres provided Ca2+ completely, without any organic solvent, crosslinking agent or binder. The microstructure, mechanical properties, apatite-forming ability, ionic release, adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) of the scaffolds were evaluated. The results showed that uniform films could be obtained on the surface as well as abundant of crosslinking bridges in the interior of scaffolds. The…

In vitro colonization of stratified bioactive scaffolds by pre-osteoblast cells

Acta Biomaterialia 2016 Volume 44, Issue 15, Pages 73–84

Mesoporous bioactive glass-polycaprolactone (MBG-PCL) scaffolds have been prepared by robocasting, a layer by layer rapid prototyping method, by stacking of individual strati. Each stratus was independently analyzed during the cell culture tests with MC3T3-E1 preosteblast-like cells. The presence of MBG stimulates the colonization of the scaffolds by increasing the cell proliferation and differentiation. MBG-PCL composites not only enhanced pre-osteoblast functions but also allowed cell movement along its surface, reaching the upper stratus faster than in pure PCL scaffolds. The cells behavior on each individual stratus revealed that the scaffolds colonization depends on the chemical stimuli supplied by the MBG dissolution…

Periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells with protein-releasing scaffolds for cementum formation and integration on dentin surface

Connective Tissue Research 2016 Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 488-495

Purpose/Aim: Cementogenesis is a critical step in periodontal tissue regeneration given the essential role of cementum in anchoring teeth to the alveolar bone. This study is designed to achieve integrated cementum formation on the root surfaces of human teeth using growth factor–releasing scaffolds with periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs). Materials and methods: Human PDLSCs were sorted by CD146 expression, and characterized using CFU-F assay and induced multi-lineage differentiation. Polycaprolactone scaffolds were fabricated using 3D printing, embedded with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), or bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7). After removing cementum on…

3D-Bioprinting of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Nanofibers-Alginate Hydrogel Bioink Containing Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering 2016 Volume 2, Issue 10, Pages 1732–1742

Bioinks play a central role in 3D-bioprinting by providing the supporting environment within which encapsulated cells can endure the stresses encountered during the digitally-driven fabrication process, and continue to mature, proliferate, and eventually form extracellular matrix (ECM). In order to be most effective, it is important that bioprinted constructs recapitulate the native tissue milieu as closely as possible. As such, musculoskeletal soft tissue constructs can benefit from bioinks that mimic their nanofibrous matrix constitution, which is also critical to their function. This study focuses on the development and proof-of-concept assessment of a fibrous bioink composed of alginate hydrogel, polylactic acid…

Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2016 Volume 5, Issue 12, Pages 1429–1438

Direct-write printing of stem cells within biomaterials presents an opportunity to engineer tissue for in vitro modeling and regenerative medicine. Here, a first example of constructing neural tissue by printing human neural stem cells that are differentiated in situ to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia is reported. The supporting biomaterial incorporates a novel clinically relevant polysaccharide-based bioink comprising alginate, carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose. The printed bioink rapidly gels by stable cross-linking to form a porous 3D scaffold encapsulating stem cells for in situ expansion and differentiation. Differentiated neurons form synaptic contacts, establish networks, are spontaneously active, show a bicuculline-induced increased calcium…

3D Bioplotting of Gelatin/Alginate Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: Influence of Crosslinking Degree and Pore Architecture on Physicochemical Properties

Journal of Materials Science & Technology 2016 Volume 32, Issue 9, Pages 889–900

Gelatin/Alginate hydrogels were engineered for bioplotting in tissue engineering. One major drawback of hydrogel scaffolds is the lack of adequate mechanical properties. In this study, using a bioplotter, we constructed the scaffolds with different pore architectures by deposition of gelatin/alginate hydrogels layer-by-layer. The scaffolds with different crosslinking degree were obtained by post-crosslinking methods. Their physicochemical properties, as well as cell viability, were assessed. Different crosslinking methods had little influence on scaffold architecture, porosity, pore size and distribution. By contrast, the water absorption ability, degradation rate and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were dramatically affected by treatment with various concentrations of…

Multi‐and mixed 3D‐printing of graphene‐hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for complex tissue engineering

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2016 Volume 105, Issue 1, Pages 274–283

With the emergence of 3D-printing (3DP) as a vital tool in tissue engineering and medicine, there is an ever growing need to develop new biomaterials that can be 3D-printed and also emulate the compositional, structural, and functional complexities of human tissues and organs. In this work, we probe the 3D-printable biomaterials spectrum by combining two recently established functional 3D-printable particle-laden biomaterial inks: one that contains hydroxyapatite microspheres (Hyperelastic Bone, HB) and another that contains graphene nanoflakes (3D-Graphene, 3DG). We demonstrate that not only can these distinct, osteogenic and neurogenic inks be co-3D-printed to create complex, multi-material constructs, but that composite…

Analyzing biological performance of 3D-printed, cell-impregnated hybrid constructs for cartilage tissue engineering

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2016 Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 173-188

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting of hybrid constructs is a promising biofabrication method for cartilage tissue engineering because a synthetic polymer framework and cell-impregnated hydrogel provide structural and biological features of cartilage, respectively. During bioprinting, impregnated cells may be subjected to high temperatures (caused by the adjacent melted polymer) and process-induced mechanical forces, potentially compromising cell function. This study addresses these biofabrication issues, evaluating the heat distribution of printed polycaprolactone (PCL) strands and the rheological property and structural stability of alginate hydrogels at various temperatures and concentrations. The biocompatibility of parameters from these studies was tested by culturing 3D hybrid constructs bioprinted…

3D fibre deposition and stereolithography techniques for the design of multifunctional nanocomposite magnetic scaffolds

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2015 Volume 26, Issue 250, Pages 250ff

Magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds based on poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) were fabricated by 3D fibre deposition modelling (FDM) and stereolithography techniques. In addition, hybrid coaxial and bilayer magnetic scaffolds were produced by combining such techniques. The aim of the current research was to analyse some structural and functional features of 3D magnetic scaffolds obtained by the 3D fibre deposition technique and by stereolithography as well as features of multimaterial scaffolds in the form of coaxial and bilayer structures obtained by the proper integration of such methods. The compressive mechanical behaviour of these scaffolds was investigated in a wet environment at 37…

Spatiotemporal proliferation of human stromal cells adjusts to nutrient availability and leads to stanniocalcin-1 expression in vitro and in vivo

Biomaterials 2015 Volume 61, Pages 190–202

Cells and tissues are intrinsically adapted to molecular gradients and use them to maintain or change their activity. The effect of such gradients is particularly important for cell populations that have an intrinsic capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Our results showed that nutrient gradients prompt the spatiotemporal organization of MSCs in 3D culture. Cells adapted to their 3D environment without significant cell death or cell differentiation. Kinetics data and whole-genome gene expression analysis suggest that a low proliferation activity phenotype predominates in stromal cells cultured in 3D, likely due…

The preliminary performance study of the 3D printing of a tricalcium phosphate scaffold for the loading of sustained release anti-tuberculosis drugs

Journal of Materials Science 2015 Volume 50, Issue 5, Pages 2138-2147

In the surgical treatment of tuberculosis of the bones, excision of the lesion site leaves defects in the bone structure. Recent research has shown benefits for bone tissue support, such as tricalcium phosphate, as regrowth materials. These biocompatible engineering materials have good bone inductivity and biologic mechanical performance. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of 3D printing, a new technology, to design and build 3-dimensional support structures for use in grafting at lesion sites and for use in embedding the sustained release anti-tuberculosis drugs Rifampin and Isoniazid and determine the in vivo performance of these structures….

Glasses in bone regeneration: A multiscale issue

Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 2015 Volume 432, Part A, Pages 9–14

3D scaffolds based in mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) are being widely investigated to use in bone tissue engineering (TE) applications. These scaffolds are often obtained by rapid prototyping (RP) and exhibit an array of interconnected pores in a hierarchy of sizes. The ordered mesopore network (around 4 nm in diameter) is optimal for the adsorption and release of bone inductor biomolecules, and the arrangement of macropores over 100 μm facilitates the bone cell ingrowths and angiogenesis. Nevertheless MBG composition can be varied almost infinitely at the atomic scale by including in the glass network oxides of inorganic elements with a…

Use of the polycation polyethyleneimine to improve the physical properties of alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel during fabrication of tissue repair scaffolds

Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2015 Volume 26, Issue 7, Pages 433-445

Recently alginate-based tissue repair scaffolds fabricated using 3D printing techniques have been extensively examined for use in tissue engineering applications. However, their physical and mechanical properties are unfavorable for many tissue engineering applications because these properties are poorly controlled during the fabrication process. Some improvement of alginate gel properties can be realized by addition of hyaluronic acid (HA), and this may also improve the ability of cells to interact with the gel. Here, we report improvement of the physical properties of alginate–HA gel scaffolds by the addition of the polycation polyethyleneimine (PEI) during the fabrication process in order to stabilize…

A Multimaterial Bioink Method for 3D Printing Tunable, Cell-Compatible Hydrogels

Advanced Materials 2015 Volume 27, Issue 9, Pages 1607–1614

A multimaterial bio-ink method using polyethylene glycol crosslinking is presented for expanding the biomaterial palette required for 3D bioprinting of more mimetic and customizable tissue and organ constructs. Lightly crosslinked, soft hydrogels are produced from precursor solutions of various materials and 3D printed. Rheological and biological characterizations are presented, and the promise of this new bio-ink synthesis strategy is discussed.

A bio-friendly, green route to processable, biocompatible graphene/polymer composites

RSC Advances 2015 Volume 5, Issue 56, 45284-45290

Graphene-based polymer composites are a very promising class of compounds for tissue engineering scaffolds. However, in general the methods of synthesis are environmentally hazardous and residual toxic materials can affect the biocompatibility significantly. In this paper a simple, scalable, environmentally-friendly, microwave-assisted synthesis is described that results in conducting graphene/polycaprolactone composites that retain the processability and biocompatibility of the pristine polymer without introducing possibly hazardous reducing agents. Composites of polycaprolactone and graphene oxide were synthesised in a single step by the ring-opening polymerisation of ε-caprolactone in the presence of dispersed graphene oxide nanosheets under microwave irradiation. The graphene oxide provides a…

Fabrication of novel Si-doped Hydroxyapatite/Gelatine scaffolds by rapid prototyping for drug delivery and bone regeneration

Acta Biomaterialia 2015 Volume 15, Pages 200–209

Porous 3-D scaffolds consisting of gelatine and Si-doped hydroxyapatite were fabricated at room temperature by rapid prototyping. Microscopic characterization revealed a highly homogeneous structure, showing the pre-designed porosity (macroporosity) and a lesser in-rod porosity (microporosity). The mechanical properties of such scaffolds are close to those of trabecular bone of the same density. The biological behavior of these hybrid scaffolds is greater than that of pure ceramic scaffolds without gelatine, increasing pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation (matrix mineralization and gene expression). Since the fabrication process of these structures was carried out at mild conditions, an antibiotic (vancomycin) was incorporated in the slurry…

Multiscale fabrication of biomimetic scaffolds for tympanic membrane tissue engineering

Biofabrication 2015 Volume 7, Number 2, Article 025005

The tympanic membrane (TM) is a thin tissue able to efficiently collect and transmit sound vibrations across the middle ear thanks to the particular orientation of its collagen fibers, radiate on one side and circular on the opposite side. Through the combination of advanced scaffolds and autologous cells, tissue engineering (TE) could offer valuable alternatives to autografting in major TM lesions. In this study, a multiscale approach based on electrospinning (ES) and additive manufacturing (AM) was investigated to fabricate scaffolds, based on FDA approved copolymers, resembling the anatomic features and collagen fiber arrangement of the human TM. A single scale…

Dielectric spectroscopy for monitoring human pancreatic islet differentiation within cell-seeded scaffolds in a perfusion bioreactor system

Analyst 2015 Volume 140, Issue 18, Pages 6295-6305

The long-term in vitro culture and differentiation of human pancreatic islets is still hindered by the inability to emulate a suitable microenvironment mimicking physiological extracellular matrix (ECM) support and nutrient/oxygen perfusion. This is further amplified by the current lack of a non-invasive and rapid monitoring system to readily evaluate cellular processes. In this study, we realized a viable method for non-invasively monitoring isolated human pancreatic islets in vitro. Islets are induced to dedifferentiate into proliferative duct-like structures (DLS) in preparation for potential and subsequent re-differentiation into functional islet-like structures (ILS) in a process reminiscent of islet regeneration strategies. This long-term…

3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications

BioMed Research International 2015 Volume 2015, Article ID 925757

Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths

Alginate Microspheroid Encapsulation and Delivery of MG-63 Cells Into Polycaprolactone Scaffolds: A New Biofabrication Approach for Tissue Engineering Constructs

Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine 2015 Volume 6, Issue 2, 021003

Scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering by providing structural framework and a surface for cells to attach, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix (ECM). In order to enable efficient tissue formation, delivering sufficient cells into the scaffold three-dimensional (3D) matrix using traditional static and dynamic seeding methods continues to be a critical challenge. In this study, we investigate a new cell delivery approach utilizing deposition of hydrogel-cell encapsulated microspheroids into polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds to improve the seeding efficiency. Three-dimensional-bioplotted PCL constructs (0 deg/90 deg lay down, 284 ± 6 μm strand width, and 555 ± 8 μm strand separation) inoculated with MG-63 model bone cells encapsulated within…

Bioplotting Alginate/Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Scaffolds with Structural Integrity and Preserved Schwann Cell Viability

3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing 2014 Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages 194-203

Bioplotting is an emerging freeform scaffold fabrication technique useful for creating artificial tissue scaffolds containing living cells. Simultaneous maintenance of scaffold structural integrity and cell viability is a challenging task. In this article, we present strategies developed to bioplot alginate-based three-dimensional tissue scaffolds containing hyaluronic acid and living Schwann cells for potential use in peripheral nerve tissue engineering. The fabrication platform, upon which the scaffold is created, was coated with the polycation polyethylenimine to immobilize the first layer of the scaffold on the platform. Each layer was then dispensed into a bath containing calcium chloride to cross-link the alginate, polyvinyl…

3D-Printed Magnetic Fe3O4/MBG/PCL Composite Scaffolds with Multifunctionality of Bone Regeneration, Local Anticancer Drug Delivery and Hyperthermia

Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2014 Volume 2, Issue 43, Pages 7583-7595

In this study, three-dimensional (3D) magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing mesoporous bioactive glass/polycaprolactone (Fe3O4/MBG/PCL) composite scaffolds have been fabricated by the 3D-printing technique. The physiochemical properties, in vitro bioactivity, anticancer drug delivery, mechanical strength, magnetic heating ability and cell response of Fe3O4/MBG/PCL scaffolds were systematically investigated. The results showed that Fe3O4/MBG/PCL scaffolds had uniform macropores of 400 μm, high porosity of 60% and excellent compressive strength of 13–16 MPa. The incorporation of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles into MBG/PCL scaffolds did not influence their apatite mineralization ability but endowed excellent magnetic heating ability and significantly stimulated proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteogenesis-related gene…

Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 2014 Volume 5, Pages 610–621

Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA) and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA). Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase…

Effect of Bioglass on Growth and Biomineralization of SaOS-2 Cells in Hydrogel after 3D Cell Bioprinting

PloS One 2014 Volume 9, Issue 11, Article e112497

We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP•Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2∶CaO∶P2O5 of 55∶40∶5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP•Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin…

Three-dimensional printing of strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration

Acta Biomaterialia 2014 Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 2269–2281

In this study, we fabricated strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (Sr-MBG) scaffolds with controlled architecture and enhanced mechanical strength using a three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique. The study showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds had uniform interconnected macropores and high porosity, and their compressive strength was ∼170 times that of polyurethane foam templated MBG scaffolds. The physicochemical and biological properties of Sr-MBG scaffolds were evaluated by ion dissolution, apatite-forming ability and proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteogenic expression and extracelluar matrix mineralization of osteoblast-like cells MC3T3-E1. The results showed that Sr-MBG scaffolds exhibited a slower ion dissolution rate and more significant potential to stabilize the…

Engineering a morphogenetically active hydrogel for bioprinting of bioartificial tissue derived from human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells

Biomaterials 2014 Volume 35, Issue 31, Pages 8810–8819

Sodium alginate hydrogel, stabilized with gelatin, is a suitable, biologically inert matrix that can be used for encapsulating and 3D bioprinting of bone-related SaOS-2 cells. However, the cells, embedded in this matrix, remain in a non-proliferating state. Here we show that addition of an overlay onto the bioprinted alginate/gelatine/SaOS-2 cell scaffold, consisting of agarose and the calcium salt of polyphosphate [polyP·Ca2+-complex], resulted in a marked increase in cell proliferation. In the presence of 100 μm polyP·Ca2+-complex, the cells proliferate with a generation time of approximately 47–55 h. In addition, the hardness of the alginate/gelatin hydrogel substantially increases in the presence…

Towards an in vitro model mimicking the foreign body response: tailoring the surface properties of biomaterials to modulate extracellular matrix

Scientific Reports 2014 Volume 4, Article number 6325

Despite various studies to minimize host reaction following a biomaterial implantation, an appealing strategy in regenerative medicine is to actively use such an immune response to trigger and control tissue regeneration. We have developed an in vitro model to modulate the host response by tuning biomaterials’ surface properties through surface modifications techniques as a new strategy for tissue regeneration applications. Results showed tunable surface topography, roughness, wettability, and chemistry by varying treatment type and exposure, allowing for the first time to correlate the effect of these surface properties on cell attachment, morphology, strength and proliferation, as well as proinflammatory (IL-1β,…

The 3D printing of gelatin methacrylamide cell-laden tissue-engineered constructs with high cell viability

Biomaterials 2014 Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 49–62

In the present study, we report on the combined efforts of material chemistry, engineering and biology as a systemic approach for the fabrication of high viability 3D printed macroporous gelatin methacrylamide constructs. First, we propose the use and optimization of VA-086 as a photo-initiator with enhanced biocompatibility compared to the conventional Irgacure 2959. Second, a parametric study on the printing of gelatins was performed in order to characterize and compare construct architectures. Hereby, the influence of the hydrogel building block concentration, the printing temperature, the printing pressure, the printing speed, and the cell density were analyzed in depth. As a…

Novel crosslinked alginate/hyaluronic acid hydrogels for nerve tissue engineering

Frontiers of Materials Science 2013 Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 269-284

Artificial tissue engineering scaffolds can potentially provide support and guidance for the regrowth of severed axons following nerve injury. In this study, a hybrid biomaterial composed of alginate and hyaluronic acid (HA) was synthesized and characterized in terms of its suitability for covalent modification, biocompatibility for living Schwann cells and feasibility to construct three dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Carbodiimide mediated amide formation for the purpose of covalent crosslinking of the HA was carried out in the presence of calciumions that ionically crosslink alginate. Amide formation was found to be dependent on the concentrations of carbodiimide and calcium chloride. The double-crosslinked composite…

In situ forming collagen–hyaluronic acid membrane structures: mechanism of self-assembly and applications in regenerative medicine

Acta Biomaterialia 2013 Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 5153–5161

Bioactive, in situ forming materials have the potential to complement minimally invasive surgical procedures and enhance tissue healing. For such biomaterials to be adopted in the clinic, they must be cost-effective, easily handled by the surgeon and have a history of biocompatibility. To this end, we report a novel and facile self-assembling strategy to create membranes and encapsulating structures using collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA). Unlike membranes built by layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged biomolecules, the collagen–HA membranes described here form a diffusion barrier upon electrostatic interaction of the oppositely charged biomolecules, which is further driven by osmotic pressure imbalances….

Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Biomatter 2013 Volume 3, Issue 2, e23705

Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), electrospinning (ESP) and a biomimetic coating method in order to provide mechanical support and a physico-chemical environment mimicking both the organic and inorganic phases of bone extracellular matrix (ECM). Poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(buthylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) block copolymer was used to produce three dimensional scaffolds by combining 3D fiber (3DF) deposition, and ESP, and these constructs were then coated with a…

Advanced composites for hard-tissue engineering based on PCL/organic–inorganic hybrid fillers: From the design of 2D substrates to 3D rapid prototyped scaffolds

Polymer Composites 2013 Volume 34, Issue 9, Pages 1413–1417

The bioactivity of sol–gel synthesized poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/TiO2 or poly(ε-caprolactone)/ZrO2 particles was already known. In designing innovative 2D composite substrates for hard-tissue engineering, the possibility to embed PCL/TiO2 or PCL/ZrO2 hybrid fillers into a PCL matrix was previously proposed. In the present study, the potential of 3D fiber-deposition technique to design morphologically controlled scaffolds consisting of PCL reinforced with PCL/TiO2 or PCL/ZrO2 hybrid fillers was demonstrated. Finite element analysis was initially carried out on 2D substrates to find a correlation between the previously obtained results from the small punch test and the Young’s modulus of the materials, whilst mechanical and biological…

Monolithic and assembled polymer–ceramic composites for bone regeneration

Acta Biomaterialia 2013 Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5708–5717

The rationale for the use of polymer–ceramic composites for bone regeneration stems from the natural composition of bone, with collagen type I and biological apatite as the main organic and inorganic constituents, respectively. In the present study composite materials of PolyActive™ (PA), a poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephtalate) co-polymer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) at a weight ratio of 85:15 were prepared by rapid prototyping (RP) using two routes. In the first approach pre-extruded composite filaments of PA–HA were processed using three-dimensional fibre deposition (3DF) (conventional composite scaffolds). In the second approach PA scaffolds were fabricated using 3DF and combined with HA pillars…

Three-Dimensional Printing of Soy Protein Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2013 Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 417-426

Fabricating three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with controlled structure and geometry is crucial for tissue regeneration. To date, exploration in printing 3D natural protein scaffolds is limited. In this study, soy protein slurry was successfully printed using the 3D Bioplotter to form scaffolds. A method to verify the structural integrity of resulting scaffolds during printing was developed. This process involved measuring the mass extrusion flow rate of the slurry from the instrument, which was directly affected by the extrusion pressure and the soy protein slurry properties. The optimal mass flow rate for printing soy slurry at 27°C was 0.0072±0.0002 g/s. The addition…

Poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds: effect of structure on properties and osteogenic activity of stem cells

Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2013 Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 930–942

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of structure (design and porosity) on the matrix stiffness and osteogenic activity of stem cells cultured on poly(ester-urethane) (PEU) scaffolds. Different three-dimensional (3D) forms of scaffold were prepared from lysine-based PEU using traditional salt-leaching and advanced bioplotting techniques. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury porosimetry and mechanical testing. The scaffolds had various pore sizes with different designs, and all were thermally stable up to 300 °C. In vitro tests, carried out using rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) for bone tissue…

Corrugated round fibers to improve cell adhesion and proliferation in tissue engineering scaffolds

Acta Biomaterialia 2013 Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 6928–6935

Optimal cell interaction with biomaterial scaffolds is one of the important requirements for the development of successful in vitro tissue-engineered tissues. Fast, efficient and spatially uniform cell adhesion can improve the clinical potential of engineered tissue. Three-dimensional (3-D) solid free form fabrication is one widely used scaffold fabrication technique today. By means of deposition of polymer fibers, scaffolds with various porosity, 3-D architecture and mechanical properties can be prepared. These scaffolds consist mostly of solid round fibers. In this study, it was hypothesized that a corrugated fiber morphology enhances cell adhesion and proliferation and therefore leads to the development of…

Layered Gradient Nonwovens of In Situ Crosslinked Electrospun Collagenous Nanofibers Used as Modular Scaffold Systems for Soft Tissue Regeneration

Advanced Functional Materials 2013 Volume 23, Issue 26, Pages 3277-3285

In a versatile modular scaffold system, gradient nonwovens of in situ crosslinked gelatin nanofibers (CGN), fabricated by reactive electrospinning, are laminated with perforated layers and nonwovens of thermoplastic non-crosslinked biodegradable polyesters. The addition of glyoxal to a gelatin solution in a non-toxic solvent mixture consisting of acetic acid, ethyl acetate, and water (5:3:2 w/w/w) enables the in situ crosslinking of gelatin nanofibers during electrospinning. The use of this fluorine-free crosslinking system eliminates the need of post-treatment crosslinking and purification steps typical for conventional CGN scaffolds. The slowly progressing crosslinking of the dissolved gelatin in the presence of glyoxal increases the…