3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers about Technology Development (16 results)

Printing Biological Liquid On Hydrophobic 3D Electrodes

Solid-State, Actuators, and Microsystems Workshop 2018 Papes 144-147

This paper presents for the first time a programmable and scalable 3D electro-bioprinting (3D-EBP) process for patterning bionanoreceptors, cysteine-modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys), on high-density micropillar array electrodes. The structural hydrophobicity in high aspect ratio geometries of micro/nano devices poses a critical challenge for assembling 3D biomaterial-device interfaces. Here, we have successfully integrated electrowetting principles with a modified state-of-the-art bioprinter for automated, high-throughput, and large-scale patterning of TMV1cys particles on hydrophobic 3D electrodes. The 3D-EBP processed bionanoreceptors maintained both structural and chemical functions as characterized via SEM and fluorescence microscopy. Overall, the innovative 3D biomanufacturing process creates excellent opportunities for…

Determination Of The Geometrical And Viscoelastic Properties Of Scaffolds Made By Additive Manufacturing Using Bioplotter

Lekar a technika – Clinician and Technology 2017 Volume 47, Issue 3, pages 88–95

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a name of a group of technologies that build 3D objects by adding layer-upon-layer of material. There are many technologies, including Rapid Prototyping (RP), Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM), layered manufacturing and additive fabrication. Many types of materials can be used for AM technology. Biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), are currently the subject of intensive research in the field of additive manufacturing and regenerative medicine. A number of biodegradable and bioresorbable materials, as well as scaffold designs, have been experimentally and clinically studied in many research facilities around the world. For effective…

Modeling flow behavior and flow rate of medium viscous alginate for scaffold fabrication with 3D bioplotter

Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 2017 Volume 139, Issue 8, Article 081002

Tissue regeneration with scaffold is one of the most promising approaches now a day, where application of dispensing-based rapid prototyping technique is drawing attention due to its capability to offer operational flexibility and print complex structure with utmost uniformity. In a pneumatic dispensing system, it is a critical issue to control the flow rate of biomaterial from dispensing tip, as some variables (material viscosity, temperature, needle geometry, and dispensing pressure) regulates the flow rate . In this context, model equations can play a vital role to control and predict the flow rate of dispensing material, and thus can eliminate the…

3D bioprinting of BM-MSCs-loaded ECM biomimetic hydrogels for in vitro neocartilage formation

Biofabrication 2016 Volume 8, Issue 3, 035002

In this work we demonstrate how to print 3D biomimetic hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering with high cell density (>107 cells ml−1), high cell viability (85 ÷ 90%) and high printing resolution (≈100 μm) through a two coaxial-needles system. The scaffolds were composed of modified biopolymers present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage, namely gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA), chondroitin sulfate amino ethyl methacrylate (CS-AEMA) and hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HAMA). The polymers were used to prepare three photocurable bioinks with increasing degree of biomimicry: (i) GelMA, (ii) GelMA + CS-AEMA and (iii) GelMA + CS-AEMA + HAMA. Alginate was added…

Extrusion-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) in a full-factorial design

ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2016 Volume 2, Issue 10, Pages 1771–1780

3D printing has emerged as an important technique for fabricating tissue engineered scaffolds. However, systematic evaluations of biomaterials for 3D printing have not been widely investigated. We evaluated poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) as a model material for extrusion-based printing applications. A full-factorial design evaluating the effects of four factors (PPF concentration, printing pressure, printing speed, and programmed fiber spacing) on viscosity, fiber diameter, and pore size was performed layer-by-layer on 3D scaffolds. We developed a linear model of printing solution viscosity, where concentration of PPF had the greatest effect on viscosity, and the polymer exhibited shear thinning behavior. Additionally, linear models…

Thermal imaging analysis of 3D biological agarose matrices

International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics 2011 Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 167-179

Advances in rapid prototyping have allowed for the construction of biocompatible materials (hydrogels) to be used in regenerative medicine. Within this area of construction inherent problems arise due to the mechanical instability of such materials that are temperature dependent. This research paper describes a thermal imaging analysis used to circumvent needle blockage when using an RP technology called bioplotting, used for extruding high temperature hydrogels, where agarose was the experimental biomaterial. The investigation describes how we have overcome these inherent problems through thermal imaging analysis, allowing us to accurately construct 3D biological matrices that have satisfied the in-vitro cell requirements…

A micro-scale surface-structured PCL scaffold fabricated by a 3D plotter and a chemical blowing agent

Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2010 Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 159-170

To study cell responses, polymeric scaffolds with a controllable pore size and porosity have been fabricated using rapid-prototyping methods. However, the scaffolds fabricated by rapid prototyping have very smooth surfaces, which tend to discourage initial cell attachment. Initial cell attachment, migration, differentiation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the chemical and physical characteristics of the scaffold surface. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) plotting method supplemented with a chemical blowing agent to produce a surface-modified 3D scaffold in which the surface is inscribed with nano- and micro-sized pores. The chemically-blown 3D polymeric scaffold exhibited positive qualities, including the…

Fabrication and characterization of 3D scaffold using 3D plotting system

Chinese Science Bulletin 2010 Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 94-98

In this paper, we design and fabricate a 3D scaffold using rapid prototyping (RP) technology for tissue engineering. The scaffold should have a three-dimensional interconnected pore network. We fabricate a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold with interconnecting pores and uniform porosity for cell ingrowth using a 3D plotting system. In order to keep the three dimensional shape under mechanical loading while implanted, we design an oscillating nozzle system to increase elastic modulus and yield strength of PCL strand. We characterize the influence of pore geometry, compressive modulus of the scaffold, elastic modulus and yield strength of the strand using SEM, dynamical mechanical…

Three-Dimensional Plotter Technology for Fabricating Polymeric Scaffolds with Micro-grooved Surfaces

Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2009 Volume 20, Issue 14, Pages 2089-2101
J. Son G. H. Kim

Various mechanical techniques have been used to fabricate biomedical scaffolds, including rapid prototyping (RP) devices that operate from CAD files of the target feature information. The three-dimensional (3-D) bio-plotter is one RP system that can produce design-based scaffolds with good mechanical properties for mimicking cartilage and bones. However, the scaffolds fabricated by RP have very smooth surfaces, which tend to discourage initial cell attachment. Initial cell attachment, migration, differentiation and proliferation are strongly dependent on the chemical and physical characteristics of the scaffold surface. In this study, we propose a new 3-D plotting method supplemented with a piezoelectric system for…

Incorporation of growth factor containing Matrigel promotes vascularization of porous PLGA scaffolds

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2008 Volume 85A, Issue 2, Pages 397-407

In tissue engineering, rapid ingrowth of blood vessels into scaffolds is a major prerequisite for the survival of three-dimensional tissue constructs. In the present study, we investigated whether the vascularization of implanted poly-D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds may be accelerated by incorporation of Matrigel. For this purpose, we investigated in the aortic ring assay the proangiogenic properties of growth factor reduced Matrigel (GFRM) and growth factor containing Matrigel (GFCM), which were then incorporated into the pores of PLGA scaffolds. Subsequently, we analyzed vascularization, biocompatibility, and incorporation of these scaffolds during 14 days after implantation into dorsal skinfold chambers of balb/c mice…

3D Fiber-Deposited Electrospun Integrated Scaffolds Enhance Cartilage Tissue Formation

Advanced Functional Materials 2008 Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 53-60

Despite the periodical and completely interconnected pore network that characterizes rapid prototyped scaffolds, cell seeding efficiency remains still a critical factor for optimal tissue regeneration. This can be mainly attributed to the current resolution limits in pore size. We present here novel three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds fabricated by combining 3D fiber deposition (3DF) and electrospinning (ESP). Scaffolds consisted of integrated 3DF periodical macrofiber and random ESP microfiber networks (3DFESP). The 3DF scaffold provides structural integrity and mechanical properties, while the ESP network works as a “sieving” and cell entrapment system and offers?at the same time?cues at the extracellular matrix (ECM) scale….

Critical Steps toward a Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Implant Using Embryonic Stem Cells

Tissue Engineering Part A 2008 Volume: 14 Issue 1, Pages 135-147

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a potential source for cartilage tissue engineering because they provide an unlimited supply of cells that can be differentiated into chondrocytes. So far, chondrogenic differentiation of both mouse and human ES cells has only been demonstrated in two-dimensional cultures, in pellet cultures, in a hydrogel, or on thin biomaterials. The next challenge will be to form cartilage on a load-bearing, clinically relevant-sized scaffold in vitro and in vivo, to regenerate defects in patients suffering from articular cartilage disorders. For a successful implant, cells have to be seeded efficiently and homogenously throughout the scaffold. Parameters investigated…

Design and Fabrication of 3D Porous Scaffolds to Facilitate Cell-Based Gene Therapy

Tissue Engineering Part A 2008 Volume: 14 Issue 6, Pages 1037-1048

Biomaterials capable of efficient gene delivery by embedded cells provide a fundamental tool for the treatment of acquired or hereditary diseases. A major obstacle is maintaining adequate nutrient and oxygen diffusion to cells within the biomaterial. In this study, we combined the solid free-form fabrication and porogen leaching techniques to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds, with bimodal pore size distribution, for cell-based gene delivery. The objective of this study was to design micro-/macroporous scaffolds to improve cell viability and drug delivery. Murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) genetically engineered to secrete erythropoietin (EPO) were seeded onto poly-l-lactide (PLLA) scaffolds with different…

Dynamic mechanical properties of 3D fiber-deposited PEOT/PBT scaffolds: An experimental and numerical analysis

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2006 Volume 78A, Issue 3, pages 605-614

Mechanical properties of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds can be appropriately modulated through novel fabrication techniques like 3D fiber deposition (3DF), by varying scaffold’s pore size and shape. Dynamic stiffness, in particular, can be considered as an important property to optimize the scaffold structure for its ultimate in vivo application to regenerate a natural tissue. Experimental data from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) reveal a dependence of the dynamic stiffness of the scaffold on the intrinsic mechanical and physicochemical properties of the material used, and on the overall porosity and architecture of the construct. The aim of this study was to assess the…

3D fiber-deposited scaffolds for tissue engineering: Influence of pores geometry and architecture on dynamic mechanical properties

Biomaterials 2006 Volume 27, Issue 7, Pages 974-985

One of the main issues in tissue engineering is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the tissues to be regenerated. Conventional fabrication techniques are not sufficiently suitable to control scaffold structure to modulate mechanical properties. Within novel scaffold fabrication processes 3D fiber deposition (3DF) showed great potential for tissue engineering applications because of the precision in making reproducible 3D scaffolds, characterized by 100% interconnected pores with different shapes and sizes. Evidently, these features also affect mechanical properties. Therefore, in this study we considered the influence of different structures on dynamic mechanical properties of 3DF scaffolds….

Fabrication of soft tissue engineering scaffolds by means of rapid prototyping techniques

Journal of Materials Science 2002 Volume 37, Issue 15, pp 3107-3116

Scaffolds are of great importance for tissue engineering because they enable the production of functional living implants out of cells obtained from cell culture. These scaffolds require individual external shape and well defined internal structure with interconnected porosity. The problem of the fabrication of prototypes from computer assisted design (CAD) data is well known in automotive industry. Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are able to produce such parts. Some RP techniques exist for hard tissue implants. Soft tissue scaffolds need a hydrogel material. No biofunctional and cell compatible processing for hydrogels exists in the area of RP. Therefore, a new rapid…