3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers about Technical Application (31 results)

Cellular, Mineralized, and Programmable Cellulose Composites Fabricated by 3D Printing of Aqueous Pastes Derived from Paper Wastes and Microfibrillated Cellulose

Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 2020 Volume 305, Issue 4, Article 1900740

Combining recycling of paper wastes (WPs) with extrusion‐based additive manufacturing represents a sustainable route to cellular cellulose composites tailored for lightweight construction. Particularly, shear mixing of shredded WPs with an aqueous solution of a polymer binder like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) yields aqueous pastes suitable for 3D printing. As a shear thinning additive, both WP and microfibrillated cellulose account for enhanced shear thinning and dimensional stability. Opposite to the formation of dense WP/PVA composites by melt extrusion, 3D printing of aqueous pastes produces cellular cellulose/PVA composites exhibiting hierarchical pore architectures. In spite of low densities around 0.8 g cm−3, high Young’s…

Experiments on Flexible Filaments in Air Flow for Aeroelasticity and Fluid-Structure Interaction Models Validation

Fluids 2020 Volume 5, Issue 2, Article 90

Several problems in science and engineering are characterized by the interaction between fluid flows and deformable structures. Due to their complex and multidisciplinary nature, these problems cannot normally be solved analytically and experiments are frequently of limited scope, so that numerical simulations represent the main analysis tool. Key to the advancement of numerical methods is the availability of experimental test cases for validation. This paper presents results of an experiment specifically designed for the validation of numerical methods for aeroelasticity and fluid-structure interaction problems. Flexible filaments of rectangular cross-section and various lengths were exposed to air flow of moderate Reynolds…

High thermal conductive epoxy based composites fabricated by multi-material direct ink writing

Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 2020 Volume 129, Article 105684

Thermal management is of importance to microelectronic industry. Owing to both excellent thermal conduction and electrical insulation, hexagonal boron nitride (BN) platelets are the widely-used thermal conductive fillers in polymers. Adding high content of BN can endow polymers high thermal conductivity, but in most cases, destroy the flexibility, failure strength as well as processability of the polymers significantly. Here, we report a multi-material 3D printing technique to prepare high thermal conductive epoxy based composites, by which BN platelets were assembled together in heat-conducting phase to form the dense, continuous thermal pathway. The BN platelets show excellent alignment along printing direction…

Complex‐Shaped Cellulose Composites Made by Wet Densification of 3D Printed Scaffolds

Advanced Functional Materials 2020 Volume 30, Issue 4, Article 1904127

Cellulose is an attractive material resource for the fabrication of sustainable functional products, but its processing into structures with complex architecture and high cellulose content remains challenging. Such limitation has prevented cellulose‐based synthetic materials from reaching the level of structural control and mechanical properties observed in their biological counterparts, such as wood and plant tissues. To address this issue, a simple approach is reported to manufacture complex‐shaped cellulose‐based composites, in which the shaping capabilities of 3D printing technologies are combined with a wet densification process that increases the concentration of cellulose in the final printed material. Densification is achieved by…

Modulation of flexible filaments dynamics due to attachment angle relative to the flow

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 2019 Volume 102, Pages 232-244

This paper describes experiments carried out in a wind tunnel with three flexible silicone filaments (length to diameter ratio L/D = 50, 100, 150) hanging in crossflow in the range of reduced velocities of 7 < U* < 150 and at various attachment angles (0 ≤ α ≤ 90°) with respect to the flow direction. At low reduced velocities, due to the negligible bending stiffness, the filaments were statically reconfigured but remained mostly rectilinear along their lengths, except for the relatively small bent portion of the filaments close to the upstream fixed end. As the reduced velocity was further increased the filaments started vibrating, but in...

Fluorescent Carbon‐ and Oxygen‐Doped Hexagonal Boron Nitride Powders as Printing Ink for Anticounterfeit Applications

Advanced Optical Materials 2019 Volume 7, Issue 24, Article 1901380

Increasing demands for optical anticounterfeiting technology require the development of versatile luminescent materials with tunable photoluminescence properties. Herein, a number of fluorescent carbon‐ and oxygen‐doped hexagonal boron nitride (denoted as BCNO) phosphors are found to offer a such high‐tech anticounterfeiting solution. These multicolor BCNO powders, developed in a two‐step process with controlled annealing and oxidation, feature rod‐like particle shape, with varied luminescence properties. Studies of the optical properties of BCNO, along with other characterization, provide insight into this underexplored material. Anticounterfeiting applications are demonstrated with printed patterns which are indistinguishable to the naked eye under visible light but become highly…

Effect of Polymer Binder on the Synthesis and Properties of 3D-Printable Particle-Based Liquid Materials and Resulting Structures

ACS Omega 2019 Volume 4, Issue 7, Pages 12088-12097

Recent advances have demonstrated the ability to 3D-print, via extrusion, solvent-based liquid materials (previously named 3D-Paints) which solidify nearly instantaneously upon deposition and contain a majority by volume of solid particulate material. In prior work, the dissolved polymer binder which enables this process is a high molecular weight biocompatible elastomer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). We demonstrate in this study an expansion of this solvent-based 3D-Paint system to two additional, less-expensive, and less-specialized polymers, polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer binder used within the 3D-Paint was shown to significantly affect the as-printed and thermal postprocessing behavior of printed structures. This…

Fabrication of a conductive composite structure with enhanced stretchability using direct-write 3D printing

Materials Research Express 2019 Volume 6, Number 8, Article 085319

High stretchability and mechanical stability are the key properties of a conductive polymer composite structure. In this work, an anisotropic composite is fabricated by wet 3D printing of epoxy crosslinked chitosan/carbon microtubes. The carbon microtubes were synthesized through a high temperature carbonization of chemically purified cellulose fibres. After the chemical treatment and high temperature carbonization, the removal amorphous substrates from the core of cotton fibres results in the formation of a tubular structure. Here, chitosan which is an abundant natural polymer was used as the composite matrix. It was found that the epoxy crosslinking increases the stretchability of composite filaments.

An investigation into the relationship between inhomogeneity and wave shapes in phantoms and ex vivo skeletal muscle using Magnetic Resonance Elastography and finite element analysis

Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 2019 Volume 98, Pages 108-120

Soft biological tissues such as skeletal muscle and brain white matter can be inhomogeneous and anisotropic due to the presence of fibers. Unlike biological tissue, phantoms with known microstructure and defined mechanical properties enable a quantitative assessment and systematic investigation of the influence of inhomogeneities on the nature of shear wave propagation. This study introduces a mathematical measure for the wave shape, which the authors call as the 1-Norm, to determine the conditions under which homogenization may be a valid approach. This is achieved through experimentation using the Magnetic Resonance Elastography technique on 3D printed inhomogeneous fiber phantoms as well…

3D printing of free-standing and flexible nitrogen doped graphene/ polyaniline electrode for electrochemical energy storage

Chemical Physics Letters 2019 Volume 728, August 2019, Pages 6-13

Flexible graphene film can be quickly realized by three-dimensional printing (3D printing), which has the potential in functional electronic devices. With a trace of cobalt ions as crosslinker, the graphene oxide sol can be converted into 3D printed ink, overcoming the disadvantage of insufficient viscosity of pure graphene oxide ink. The various graphene architectures were successfully obtained by 3D printing, moreover, graphene/polyaniline composites were obtained by electropolymerization. The specific capacitance of graphene/polyaniline electrode achieved up to 238 F/g at the current density of 0.5 A/g, which was much higher than that of graphene electrode (35 F/g).

3D ink-extrusion additive manufacturing of CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy micro-lattices

Nature Communications 2019 Volume 10, Article number: 904

Additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys combines the mechanical properties of this novel family of alloys with the geometrical freedom and complexity required by modern designs. Here, a non-beam approach to additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys is developed based on 3D extrusion of inks containing a blend of oxide nanopowders (Co3O4 + Cr2O3 + Fe2O3 + NiO), followed by co-reduction to metals, inter-diffusion and sintering to near-full density CoCrFeNi in H2. A complex phase evolution path is observed by in-situ X-ray diffraction in extruded filaments when the oxide phases undergo reduction and the resulting metals inter-diffuse, ultimately forming face-centered-cubic equiatomic CoCrFeNi alloy. Linked to the phase evolution…

Implantable Nanotube Sensor Platform for Rapid Analyte Detection

Macromolecular Bioscience 2019 Volume 19, Issue 6, Article 1800469

The use of nanoparticles within living systems is a growing field, but the long‐term effects of introducing nanoparticles to a biological system are unknown. If nanoparticles remain localized after in vivo implantation unanticipated side effects due to unknown biodistribution can be avoided. Unfortunately, stabilization and retention of nanoparticles frequently alters their function.1 In this work multiple hydrogel platforms are developed to look at long‐term localization of nanoparticle sensors with the goal of developing a sensor platform that will stabilize and localize the nanoparticles without altering their function. Two different hydrogel platforms are presented, one with a liquid core of sensors…

Development of surface functionalization strategies for 3D‐printed polystyrene constructs

Journal of Biomedical Material Research, Part B: Applied Biomaterials 2019 Volume 107, Issue 8, Pages 2566-2578

There is a growing interest in 3D printing to fabricate culture substrates; however, the surface properties of the scaffold remain pertinent to elicit targeted and expected cell responses. Traditional 2D polystyrene (PS) culture systems typically require surface functionalization (oxidation) to facilitate and encourage cell adhesion. Determining the surface properties which enhance protein adhesion from media and cellular extracellular matrix (ECM) production remains the first step to translating 2D PS systems to a 3D culture surface. Here we show that the presence of carbonyl groups to PS surfaces correlated well with successful adhesion of ECM proteins and sustaining ECM production of…

3D printing of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene): a poling-free technique to manufacture flexible and transparent piezoelectric generators

MRS Communications 2019 Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 159-164

Flexible piezoelectric generators (PEGs) present a unique opportunity for renewable and sustainable energy harvesting. Here, we present a low-temperature and low-energy deposition method using solvent evaporation-assisted three-dimensional printing to deposit electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-trifluoroethylene (TrFE) up to 19 structured layers. Visible-wavelength transmittance was above 92%, while ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed little change in the electroactive phase fraction between layer depositions. Electroactivity from the fabricated PVDF-TrFE PEGs showed that a single structured layer gave the greatest output at 289.3 mV peak-to-peak voltage. This was proposed to be due to shear-induced polarization affording the alignment of the fluoropolymer dipoles without an electric field…

Fuzzy Evaluation of Rapid Prototyping Methods for Latticed Silicone Pieces

Silicon 2019

In order to compare the influence of the manufacturing methods on the property of silicone samples, the latticed structure of sample are designed, the silicone material is prepared and the silicone sample are produced by 3D printing and injection molding respectively. Four performance indexes of latticed silicone parts including the error of line width, the error of quality, tensile strength at break and elongation at break are proposed and measured. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation system for evaluating the optimal forming method of the parts is provided. The performance indexes are used as evaluation factors, and the importance degree of the…

Microstructure and porosity evolution during sintering of Ni-Mn-Ga wires printed from inks containing elemental powders

Intermetallics 2019 Volume 104, Pages 113-123

Ni-29Mn-21.5Ga (at. %) wires are fabricated via a combination of (i) extrusion of liquid inks containing a binder, solvents, and elemental Ni, Mn, and Ga powders and (ii) heat treatments to remove the polymer binder and to interdiffuse and sinter the powders. To study the microstructural evolution, sintering mechanisms, and grain growth in these wires, both ex situ metallography and in situ X-Ray tomography were conducted while sintering at 800–1050 °C for up to 4 h. After debinding, Ga-rich regions melt and induce transient liquid phase sintering of the surrounding Ni and Mn powders, resulting in localized swelling of the wires and…

Defect-engineered reduced graphene oxide sheets with high electric conductivity and controlled thermal conductivity for soft and flexible wearable thermoelectric generators

Nano Energy 2018 Volume 54, Pages 163-174

The direct use of graphene for potential thermoelectric material requires the opening of its bandgap without loss of its high electric conductivity. We herein demonstrate a synchronous reduction and assembly strategy to fabricate large-area reduced graphene oxide films with high electric conductivity and optimized low thermal conductivity assembly. The reduced graphene oxide films have a high electric conductivity and low thermal conductivity, which results from high longitudinal carrier mobility of the lattice domains as well as the enhanced scattering of phonons in the defects and their boundary that substantially reduces the mean phonon free path and the thermal conductivity. Flexible…

Printed, Flexible pH Sensor Hydrogels for Wet Environments

Advanced Materials Technologies 2018 Volume 3, Issue 11, Article 1800137

Current sensors for monitoring environmental signals, such as pH, are often made from rigid materials that are incompatible with soft biological tissues. The high stiffness of such materials sets practical limitations on the in situ utilization of sensors under biological conditions. This article describes a soft yet robust hydrogel‐based pH sensor that can be 3D printed. The pH‐sensitive poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) is combined with hydrophilic polyurethane to create novel printable inks with favorable biomechanical properties. These inks are employed to fabricate highly flexible pH sensors that linearly respond to pH in wet environments. The pH sensitive hydrogels can undergo extreme deformations including…

Flow-induced motions of flexible filaments hanging in cross-flow

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 2018 Volume 97, Pages 254-269

Experiments were carried out to study the dynamics of hanging cantilever flexible filaments in air cross-flow. Thirteen flexible filaments of 0.61 mm diameter and lengths from 20 mm to 60 mm were tested with wind speeds in the range of 1–15 m/s, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 25 

Tuning the viscoelastic features required for 3D printing of PVC-acrylate copolymers obtained by single electron transfer-degenerative chain transfer living radical polymerization (SET-DTLRP)

eXPRESS Polymer Letters 2018 Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 824-835

Random poly (vinyl chloride-co-butyl acrylate) and poly (vinyl chloride-co-2-ethylhexyl acrylate copolymers obtained by single electron transfer-degenerative chain transfer living radical polymerization (SET- DTLRP) are investigated as potential candidates for 3D Printing. The analysis of the rheological implications of 3D Printing process allows establishing the basic viscoelastic conditions that the samples should fulfil to be printable, avoiding the ‘trial and error’ procedure. The effect of temperature and acrylates concentration on the rheological properties and 3D printing feasibility is contemplated. Eventually, thermal degradation is also considered. It is demonstrated that the copolymers which contain butyl acrylate comonomer, instead of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, give…

Stable gelatin-based phantom materials with tunable x-ray attenuation properties and 3D printability for x-ray imaging

Physics in Medicine & Biology 2018 Volume 63, Number 9, Article 09NT01

We report a novel method for developing gelatin-based phantom materials for transmission x-ray imaging with high stability at room temperature and tunable x-ray attenuation properties. This is achieved by efficiently cross-linking gelatin in a glycerin solution with only 10% water by volume and systematically decreasing their x-ray attenuation coefficients by doping with microbubbles that are originally designed to be used as lightweight additives for paints and crack fillers. For demonstration, we mimic breast glandular and adipose tissues by using such gelatin materials and also study the feasibility of 3D printing them based on the extrusion-based technique. Results from x-ray spectroscopy…

Optimisation of mixture properties for 3D printing of geopolymer concrete

35th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction 2018

Freedom of design, customisation, automation, waste minimisation, reduced labour and building complex structures with cheaper materials are the main initiatives for developing 3D printed structures. The fresh properties of concrete are the most important aspects of a successful 3D printing. Concrete requires high workability for extrusion, optimum open time and high early strength in order to support the subsequent layers for 3D printing. Therefore, a mixture design that can satisfy these requirements is needed. Geopolymer concrete is a sustainable solution to traditional Portland cement-based concrete that uses waste materials. In addition, the controlled alkali-activation of geopolymer precursors in order to…

Sintering of micro-trusses created by extrusion-3D-printing of lunar regolith inks

Acta Astronautica 2018 Volume 143, Pages 1-8

The development of in situ fabrication methods for the infrastructure required to support human life on the Moon is necessary due to the prohibitive cost of transporting large quantities of materials from the Earth. Cellular structures, consisting of a regular network (truss) of micro-struts with ∼500 μm diameters, suitable for bricks, blocks, panels, and other load-bearing structural elements for habitats and other infrastructure are created by direct-extrusion 3D-printing of liquid inks containing JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant powders, followed by sintering. The effects of sintering time, temperature, and atmosphere (air or hydrogen) on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and magnetic properties of…

Determination of the normal fluid load on inclined cylinders from optical measurements of the reconfiguration of flexible filaments in flow

Journal of Fluids and Structures 2018 Volume 76, Pages 488-505

Reconfigured flexible filaments exposed to steady fluid load were investigated using a novel non-contact optical technique to measure the normal fluid force due to the fluid loading on inclined cylinders for Reynolds numbers from 25 to 460: a range not covered in previous studies that is of relevance in drag reduction and energy harvesting applications. The ranges of the buoyancy number and the Cauchy number covered in the tests were 3.6 × 10^4 ≤ B ≤ 2.1 × 10^6 and 7.6 × 10^4 ≤ Ca ≤ 1.4 × 10^7. These newly generated data were then used to assess and extend…

“Tissue Papers” from Organ-Specific Decellularized Extracellular Matrices

Advanced Functional Materials 2017 Volume 27, Article 1700992

Using an innovative, tissue-independent approach to decellularized tissue processing and biomaterial fabrication, the development of a series of “tissue papers” derived from native porcine tissues/organs (heart, kidney, liver, muscle), native bovine tissue/organ (ovary and uterus), and purified bovine Achilles tendon collagen as a control from decellularized extracellular matrix particle ink suspensions cast into molds is described. Each tissue paper type has distinct microstructural characteristics as well as physical and mechanical properties, is capable of absorbing up to 300% of its own weight in liquid, and remains mechanically robust (E = 1–18 MPa) when hydrated; permitting it to be cut, rolled,…

2D and 3D-printing of self-healing gels: design and extrusion of self-rolling objects

Molecular Systems Design & Engineering 2017 Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 283-292

In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization and three-dimensional (3D) printing of self-healing gels. The gels are prepared by cross-linking benzaldehyde-functionalized poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) with ethylenediamine (EDA) to form dynamic imine bonds. An immediate gelation was observed within seconds, followed by a full maturation, enabling time independent and stable printing. The self-healing gels showed 98% recovery from mechanical damages. To establish a printable window for our well-defined system, and to allow robust printability, we examined a broad number of ink formulations. To tune the rheology towards the formation of soft and extrudable, yet stable and self-supporting materials, we examined…

Robust and Elastic Lunar and Martian Structures from 3D-Printed Regolith Inks

Scientific Reports 2017 Volume 7, Article number: 44931

Here, we present a comprehensive approach for creating robust, elastic, designer Lunar and Martian regolith simulant (LRS and MRS, respectively) architectures using ambient condition, extrusion-based 3D-printing of regolith simulant inks. The LRS and MRS powders are characterized by distinct, highly inhomogeneous morphologies and sizes, where LRS powder particles are highly irregular and jagged and MRS powder particles are rough, but primarily rounded. The inks are synthesized via simple mixing of evaporant, surfactant, and plasticizer solvents, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (30% by solids volume), and regolith simulant powders (70% by solids volume). Both LRS and MRS inks exhibit similar rheological and 3D-printing characteristics,…

3D Printing of a Photo-thermal Self-folding Actuator

The International Conference on Design and Technology 2017 Pages 15-22

The demand for rapid and accurate fabrication of light-weight, biocompatible, and soft actuators in soft robotics has perused researchers to design and fabricate such products by rapid manufacturing techniques. The self-folding origami structure is a type of soft actuator that has applications in micro electro mechanical systems, soft electronics, and biomedical devices. 3-dimentional (3D) printing is a current manufacturing process that can be used for fabrication of involute soft self-folding products by means of shape memory polymer materials. This paper presents, for the first time, a method for developing a photo thermal self-folding soft actuator using a 3D bioplotter. Easily…

3D Micropatterned all Flexible Microfluidic Platform for Microwave Assisted Flow Organic Synthesis (MAFOS)

ChemPlusChem 2017 Volume 83, Issue 1, Pages 42-46

In present work, we fabricate large area, all flexible and microwaveable PDMS microfluidic reactor that is printed via 3D bioplotter system. The sacrificial microchannels are printed on Polydimethoxylane (PDMS) substrates by direct ink writing method using water soluble Pluronic F-127 ink and encapsulated between PDMS layers. The structure of micrometer sized channels is analyzed by optical and electron microscopy techniques. The fabricated flexible microfluidic reactors are utilized for acetylation of different amines under microwave irradiation to get acetylamides in shorter reaction time and good yields in Microwave Assisted Flow Organic Synthesis (MAFOS).

Metallic Architectures from 3D‐Printed Powder‐Based Liquid Inks

Advanced Functional Materials 2015 Volume 25, Issue 45, Pages 6985–6995

A new method for complex metallic architecture fabrication is presented, through synthesis and 3D-printing of a new class of 3D-inks into green-body structures followed by thermochemical transformation into sintered metallic counterparts. Small and large volumes of metal-oxide, metal, and metal compound 3D-printable inks are synthesized through simple mixing of solvent, powder, and the biomedical elastomer, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). These inks can be 3D-printed under ambient conditions via simple extrusion at speeds upwards of 150 mm s–1 into millimeter- and centimeter-scale thin, thick, high aspect ratio, hollow and enclosed, and multi-material architectures. The resulting 3D-printed green-bodies can be handled immediately, are…

In vivo screening of extracellular matrix components produced under multiple experimental conditions implanted in one animal

Integrative Biology 2013 Volume 5, Pages 889-898

Animal experiments help to progress and ensure safety of an increasing number of novel therapies, drug development and chemicals. Unfortunately, these also lead to major ethical concerns, costs and limited experimental capacity. We foresee a coercion of all these issues by implantation of well systems directly into vertebrate animals. Here, we used rapid prototyping to create wells with biomaterials to create a three-dimensional (3D) well-system that can be used in vitro and in vivo. First, the well sizes and numbers were adjusted for 3D cell culture and in vitro screening of molecules. Then, the functionality of the wells was evaluated…