3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers by J. P. Fisher (15 results)

Aminated 3D Printed Polystyrene Maintains Stem Cell Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2020 Volume 26, Number 2, Pages 118-131

As 3D printing becomes more common and the technique is used to build culture platforms, it is imperative to develop surface treatments for specific responses. The advantages of aminating and oxidizing polystyrene (PS) for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation are investigated. We find that ammonia (NH3) plasma incorporates amines while oxygen plasma adds carbonyl and carboxylate groups. Across 2D, 3D, and 3D dynamic culture, we find that the NH3- treated surfaces encouraged cell proliferation. Our results show that the NH3-treated scaffold was the only treatment allowing dynamic proliferation of hMSCs with little evidence of osteogenic differentiation….

Multimaterial Dual Gradient Three-Dimensional Printing for Osteogenic Differentiation and Spatial Segregation

Tissue Engineering Part A 2020 Volume 26, Number 5-6, Pages 239-252

In this study of three-dimensional (3D) printed composite β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)-/hydroxyapatite/poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-based constructs, the effects of vertical compositional ceramic gradients and architectural porosity gradients on the osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated. Specifically, three different concentrations of β-TCP (0, 10, and 20 wt%) and three different porosities (33% ± 4%, 50% ± 4%, and 65% ± 3%) were examined to elucidate the contributions of chemical and physical gradients on the biochemical behavior of MSCs and the mineralized matrix production within a 3D culture system. By delaminating the constructs at the gradient transition point, the spatial separation of cellular phenotypes could be specifically…

Endothelial/Mesenchymal Stem Cell Crosstalk within Bioprinted Cocultures

Tissue Engineering: Part A 2019

The development of viable tissue surrogates requires a vascular network that sustains cell metabolism and tissue development. The coculture of endothelial cells (ECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the two key players involved in blood vessel formation, has been heralded in tissue engineering (TE) as one of the most promising approaches for scaffold vascularization. However, MSCs may exert both proangiogenic as well antiangiogenic role. Furthermore, it is unclear which cell type is responsible for the upregulation of angiogenic pathways observed in EC:MSC cocultures. There is disagreement on the proangiogenic action of MSCs, as they have also been shown to negatively…

3D printed HUVECs/MSCs cocultures impact cellular interactions and angiogenesis depending on cell-cell distance

Biomaterials 2019 Volume 222, Article 119423

Vascularization is a crucial process during the growth and development of bone 1, yet it remains one of the main challenges in the reconstruction of large bone defects. The use of in vitro coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has been one of the most explored options. Both cell types secrete specific growth factors that are mutually beneficial, and studies suggested that cell-cell communication and paracrine secretion could be affected by a number of factors. However, little is known about the effect of cell patterning and the distance between cell populations on…

Development of surface functionalization strategies for 3D‐printed polystyrene constructs

Journal of Biomedical Material Research, Part B: Applied Biomaterials 2019 Volume 107, Issue 8, Pages 2566-2578

There is a growing interest in 3D printing to fabricate culture substrates; however, the surface properties of the scaffold remain pertinent to elicit targeted and expected cell responses. Traditional 2D polystyrene (PS) culture systems typically require surface functionalization (oxidation) to facilitate and encourage cell adhesion. Determining the surface properties which enhance protein adhesion from media and cellular extracellular matrix (ECM) production remains the first step to translating 2D PS systems to a 3D culture surface. Here we show that the presence of carbonyl groups to PS surfaces correlated well with successful adhesion of ECM proteins and sustaining ECM production of…

Fabrication and mechanical characterization of 3D printed vertical uniform and gradient scaffolds for bone and osteochondral tissue engineering

Acta Biomaterialia 2019 Volume 90, Pages 37-48

Recent developments in 3D printing (3DP) research have led to a variety of scaffold designs and techniques for osteochondral tissue engineering; however, the simultaneous incorporation of multiple types of gradients within the same construct remains a challenge. Herein, we describe the fabrication and mechanical characterization of porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with incorporated vertical porosity and ceramic content gradients via a multimaterial extrusion 3DP system. Scaffolds of 0 wt% HA (PCL), 15 wt% HA (HA15), or 30 wt% HA (HA30) were fabricated with uniform composition and porosity (using 0.2 mm, 0.5 mm, or 0.9 mm on-center fiber spacing), uniform composition and gradient porosity, and…

Effect of Dexamethasone on Room Temperature Three-Dimensional Printing, Rheology, and Degradation of a Low Modulus Polyester for Soft Tissue Engineering

ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2019 Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 846–858

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has enabled benchtop fabrication of customized bioengineered constructs with intricate architectures. Various approaches are being explored to enable optimum integration of such constructs into the physiological environment including addition of bioactive fillers. In this work, we incorporated a corticosteroid drug, dexamethasone (Dex), in a low modulus polyester (SC5050) and examined the effect of Dex incorporation on solvent-, initiator-, and monomer-free pneumatic extrusion-based 3D printing of the polymer. Dex–SC5050 interactions were characterized by plotting thermodynamic binary phase diagrams based on the Flory–Huggins theory. The effect of Dex composition on the 3D printability of the SC5050 polyester was examined…

ZEB2, a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mediates trophoblast differentiation

MHR: Basic science of reproductive medicine 2018 Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 61–75

STUDY QUESTION Does the upregulation of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) transcription factor in human trophoblast cells lead to alterations in gene expression consistent with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a consequent increase in invasiveness? SUMMARY ANSWER Overexpression of ZEB2 results in an epithelial-mesenchymal shift in gene expression accompanied by a substantial increase in invasive capacity of human trophoblast cells.

Trophoblast–endothelium signaling involves angiogenesis and apoptosis in a dynamic bioprinted placenta model

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2018 Volume 116, Issue 1, Pages 181-192

Trophoblast invasion and remodeling of the maternal spiral arteries are required for pregnancy success. Aberrant endothelium–trophoblast crosstalk may lead to preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication that has serious effects on both the mother and the baby. However, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in this pathology remains elementary because the current in vitro models cannot describe trophoblast–endothelium interactions under dynamic culture. In this study, we developed a dynamic three‐dimensional (3D) placenta model by bioprinting trophoblasts and an endothelialized lumen in a perfusion bioreactor. We found the 3D printed perfusion bioreactor system significantly augmented responses of endothelial cells by encouraging network formations…

3D Printing Bioactive PLGA Scaffolds Using DMSO as a Removable Solvent

Bioprinting 2018 Volume 10, June 2018, Article e00038

Present bioprinting techniques lack the methodology to print with bioactive materials that retain their biological functionalities. This constraint is due to the fact that extrusion-based printing of synthetic polymers is commonly performed at very high temperatures in order to achieve desired mechanical properties and printing resolutions. Consequently, current methodology prevents printing scaffolds embedded with bioactive molecules, such as growth factors. With the wide use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine research, the integration of growth factors into 3D printed scaffolds is critical because it can allow for inducible MSC differentiation. We have successfully incorporated growth factors into extrusion…

3D printed biofunctionalized scaffolds for microfracture repair of cartilage defects

Biomaterials 2018 Volume 185, Pages 219-231

While articular cartilage defects affect millions of people worldwide from adolescents to adults, the repair of articular cartilage defects still remains challenging due to the limited endogenous regeneration of the tissue and poor integration with implants. In this study, we developed a 3D-printed scaffold functionalized with aggrecan that supports the cellular fraction of bone marrow released from microfracture, a widely used clinical procedure, and demonstrated tremendous improvement of regenerated cartilage tissue quality and joint function in a lapine model. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed doubled thickness of the regenerated cartilage tissue in the group treated with our aggrecan functionalized scaffold…

Printing Biological Liquid On Hydrophobic 3D Electrodes

Solid-State, Actuators, and Microsystems Workshop 2018 Papes 144-147

This paper presents for the first time a programmable and scalable 3D electro-bioprinting (3D-EBP) process for patterning bionanoreceptors, cysteine-modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys), on high-density micropillar array electrodes. The structural hydrophobicity in high aspect ratio geometries of micro/nano devices poses a critical challenge for assembling 3D biomaterial-device interfaces. Here, we have successfully integrated electrowetting principles with a modified state-of-the-art bioprinter for automated, high-throughput, and large-scale patterning of TMV1cys particles on hydrophobic 3D electrodes. The 3D-EBP processed bionanoreceptors maintained both structural and chemical functions as characterized via SEM and fluorescence microscopy. Overall, the innovative 3D biomanufacturing process creates excellent opportunities for…

Imaging stem cell distribution, growth, migration, and differentiation in 3-D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using mesoscopic fluorescence tomography

Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2017 Volume 115, Issue 1, Pages 257-265

Regenerative medicine has emerged as an important discipline that aims to repair injury or replace damaged tissues or organs by introducing living cells or functioning tissues. Successful regenerative medicine strategies will likely depend upon a simultaneous optimization strategy for the design of biomaterials, cell-seeding methods, cell-biomaterial interactions and molecular signaling within the engineered tissues. It remains a challenge to image three-dimensional (3-D) structures and functions of the cell-seeded scaffold in mesoscopic scale (>2∼3 mm). In this study, we utilized angled fluorescence laminar optical tomography (aFLOT), which allows depth-resolved molecular characterization of engineered tissues in 3-D to investigate cell viability, migration and…

3D printing PLGA: a quantitative examination of the effects of polymer composition and printing parameters on print resolution

Biofabrication 2017 Volume 9, Number 2, Article 024101

In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meet patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science. In this study, we printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing a direct melt extrusion technique without additional ingredients….


Repair of Tympanic Membrane Perforations with Customized, Bioprinted Ear Grafts Using Chinchilla Models

Tissue Engineering Part A 2017 Volume: 24 Issue 5-6, Pages 527-535

The goal of this work is to develop an innovative method that combines bioprinting and endoscopic imaging to repair tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs). TMPs are a serious health issue because they can lead to both conductive hearing loss and repeated otitis media. TMPs occur in 3 to 5% of cases after ear tube placement as well as in cases of acute otitis media (the second most common infection in pediatrics), chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, or as a result of barotrauma to the ear. About 55,000 tympanoplasties, the surgery performed to reconstruct TMPs, are performed every year and…