3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying all papers by D. C. Dunand (9 results)

Kinetics of alloy formation and densification in Fe-Ni-Mo microfilaments extruded from oxide- or metal-powder inks

Acta Materialia 2020 Volume 193, Pages 51-60

3D ink-extrusion of powders followed by sintering is an emerging alternative to beam-based additive manufacturing, capable of creating 3D metallic objects from 1D-extruded microfilaments. Here, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomography are combined to study the phase evolution, alloy formation and sinter-densification of Fe-20Ni-5Mo (at.%) microfilaments. The filaments are

SnO2-Ag composites with high thermal cycling stability created by Ag infiltration of 3D ink-extruded SnO2 microlattices

Applied Materials Today 2020 Volume 21, Article 100794

SnO2-Ag composites with designed architectures with sub-millimeter feature sizes can provide enhanced functionality in electrical applications. SnO2-Ag composites consisting of a ceramic SnO2 micro-lattice filled with metallic Ag are created via a hybrid additive manufacturing method. The multistep process includes: (i) 3D extrusion printing of 0/90° cross-ply micro-lattices from SnO2-7%CuO nanoparticle-loaded ink; (ii) thermal treatment in air to burn the binders and sinter struts of the SnO2 micro-lattice to ~94% relative density; (iii) Ag melt infiltration of channels of sintered micro-lattices. Densification of the SnO2 struts during air-sintering is accelerated by CuO liquid phase forming at 1100°C. During the subsequent…

3D ink-extrusion additive manufacturing of CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy micro-lattices

Nature Communications 2019 Volume 10, Article number: 904

Additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys combines the mechanical properties of this novel family of alloys with the geometrical freedom and complexity required by modern designs. Here, a non-beam approach to additive manufacturing of high-entropy alloys is developed based on 3D extrusion of inks containing a blend of oxide nanopowders (Co3O4 + Cr2O3 + Fe2O3 + NiO), followed by co-reduction to metals, inter-diffusion and sintering to near-full density CoCrFeNi in H2. A complex phase evolution path is observed by in-situ X-ray diffraction in extruded filaments when the oxide phases undergo reduction and the resulting metals inter-diffuse, ultimately forming face-centered-cubic equiatomic CoCrFeNi alloy. Linked to the phase evolution…

Microstructure and porosity evolution during sintering of Ni-Mn-Ga wires printed from inks containing elemental powders

Intermetallics 2019 Volume 104, Pages 113-123

Ni-29Mn-21.5Ga (at. %) wires are fabricated via a combination of (i) extrusion of liquid inks containing a binder, solvents, and elemental Ni, Mn, and Ga powders and (ii) heat treatments to remove the polymer binder and to interdiffuse and sinter the powders. To study the microstructural evolution, sintering mechanisms, and grain growth in these wires, both ex situ metallography and in situ X-Ray tomography were conducted while sintering at 800–1050 °C for up to 4 h. After debinding, Ga-rich regions melt and induce transient liquid phase sintering of the surrounding Ni and Mn powders, resulting in localized swelling of the wires and…

Microstructure and Processing of 3D Printed Tungsten Microlattices and Infiltrated W–Cu Composites

Advanced Engineering Materials 2018 Volume 20, Article 1800354

ungsten is of industrial relevance due its outstanding intrinsic properties (e.g., highest melting‐point of all elements) and therefore difficult to 3D‐print by conventional methods. Here, tungsten micro‐lattices are produced by room‐temperature extrusion‐based 3D‐printing of an ink comprising WO3–0.5%NiO submicron powders, followed by H2‐reduction and Ni‐activated sintering. The green bodies underwent isotropic linear shrinkage of ≈50% during the thermal treatment resulting in micro‐lattices, with overall 35–60% open‐porosity, consisting of 95–100% dense W–0.5%Ni struts having ≈80–300 μm diameter. Ball‐milling the powders and inks reduced the sintering temperature needed to achieve full densification from 1400 to 1200 °C and enabled the ink to be extruded…

Sintering of micro-trusses created by extrusion-3D-printing of lunar regolith inks

Acta Astronautica 2018 Volume 143, Pages 1-8

The development of in situ fabrication methods for the infrastructure required to support human life on the Moon is necessary due to the prohibitive cost of transporting large quantities of materials from the Earth. Cellular structures, consisting of a regular network (truss) of micro-struts with ∼500 μm diameters, suitable for bricks, blocks, panels, and other load-bearing structural elements for habitats and other infrastructure are created by direct-extrusion 3D-printing of liquid inks containing JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant powders, followed by sintering. The effects of sintering time, temperature, and atmosphere (air or hydrogen) on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and magnetic properties of…

Ni-Mn-Ga Micro-trusses via Sintering of 3D-printed Inks Containing Elemental Powders

Acta Materialia 2017 Volume 143, Pages 20-29

Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy (SMA) micro-trusses, suitable for high magnetic field induced strains and/or a large magnetocaloric effect, are created via a new additive manufacturing method combining (i) 3D-printing ∼400 μm struts with an ink containing a polymer binder and elemental Ni, Mn, and Ga powders, (ii) binder burn-out and metallic powder interdiffusion and homogenization to create the final alloy, and (iii) further sintering to increase strut density. Controlled amounts of hierarchical porosity, desirable to enable twinning in this polycrystalline alloy, are achieved: (i) continuous ∼450 μm channels between the printed Ni-Mn-Ga ∼300 μm diameter struts (after sintering) and…

Iron and Nickel Cellular Structures by Sintering of 3D-Printed Oxide or Metallic Particle Inks

Advanced Engineering Materials 2016 Volume 19, Issue 11, Article 1600365

Inks comprised of metallic Fe or Ni powders, an elastomeric binder, and graded volatility solvents are 3D-printed via syringe extrusion and sintered to form metallic cellular structures. Similar structures are created from Fe2O3 and NiO particle-based inks, with an additional hydrogen reduction step before sintering. All sintered structures exhibit 92–98% relative density within their struts, with neither cracking nor visible warping despite extensive volumetric shrinkage (≈70–80%) associated with reduction (for oxide powders) and sintering (for both metal and oxide powders). The cellular architectures, with overall relative densities of 32–49%, exhibit low stiffness (1–6 GPa, due to the particular architecture used), high…

Metallic Architectures from 3D‐Printed Powder‐Based Liquid Inks

Advanced Functional Materials 2015 Volume 25, Issue 45, Pages 6985–6995

A new method for complex metallic architecture fabrication is presented, through synthesis and 3D-printing of a new class of 3D-inks into green-body structures followed by thermochemical transformation into sintered metallic counterparts. Small and large volumes of metal-oxide, metal, and metal compound 3D-printable inks are synthesized through simple mixing of solvent, powder, and the biomedical elastomer, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). These inks can be 3D-printed under ambient conditions via simple extrusion at speeds upwards of 150 mm s–1 into millimeter- and centimeter-scale thin, thick, high aspect ratio, hollow and enclosed, and multi-material architectures. The resulting 3D-printed green-bodies can be handled immediately, are…