3D Bioplotter Research Papers

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3D Bioprinting of Engineered Tissue Flaps with Hierarchical Vessel Networks (VesselNet) for Direct Host-To-Implant Perfusion

Advanced Materials 2021 Volume 33, Issue 42, Article 2102661

Engineering hierarchical vasculatures is critical for creating implantable functional thick tissues. Current approaches focus on fabricating mesoscale vessels for implantation or hierarchical microvascular in vitro models, but a combined approach is yet to be achieved to create engineered tissue flaps. Here, millimetric vessel-like scaffolds and 3D bioprinted vascularized tissues interconnect, creating fully engineered hierarchical vascular constructs for implantation. Endothelial and support cells spontaneously form microvascular networks in bioprinted tissues using a human collagen bioink. Sacrificial molds are used to create polymeric vessel-like scaffolds and endothelial cells seeded in their lumen form native-like endothelia. Assembling endothelialized scaffolds within vascularizing hydrogels incites…

Three-Dimensional Printability of an ECM-Based Gelatin Methacryloyl (GelMA) Biomaterial for Potential Neuroregeneration

ACS Omega 2021 Volume 6, Issue 33, Pages 21368–21383

The current study introduces two novel, smart polymer three-dimensional (3D)-printable interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel biomaterials with favorable chemical, mechanical, and morphological properties for potential applications in traumatic brain injury (TBI) such as potentially assisting in the restoration of neurological function through closure of the wound deficit and neural tissue regeneration. Additionally, removal of injury matter to allow for the appropriate scaffold grafting may assist in providing a TBI treatment. Furthermore, due to the 3D printability of the IPN biomaterials, complex structures can be designed and fabricated to mimic the native shape and structure of the injury sight, which can…

3D ink-printed, sintered porous silicon scaffolds for battery applications

Journal of Power Sources 2021 Volume 507, Article 230298

The fabrication of 3D ink-printed and sintered porous Si scaffolds as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries is explored. A hierarchically-porous architecture consisting of channels (~220 μm in diameter) between microporous Si struts is created to accommodate the large volume change from Si (de)lithiation during electrochemical (dis)charging. The influence of sintering parameters on Si strut porosity and the resulting mechanical and electrochemical properties of the scaffolds are studied experimentally and computationally. Varying sintering temperatures (1150–1300 °C) and sintering times (1–16 h) the open porosity within the Si filaments can be tailored between 46 and 60%. Pore size (3–6 μm) and wall…

Alginate-based tissue-specific bioinks for multi-material 3D-bioprinting of pancreatic islets and blood vessels: A step towards vascularized pancreas grafts

Bioprinting 2021 Volume 24, Article e00163

Although allogeneic islet transplantation has been proposed as a therapy for type 1 diabetes, its success rate remains low. Disruption of both extracellular matrix (ECM) and dense vascular network during islets isolation are referred to as some of the main causes of their poor engraftment. Therefore, the recapitulation of the native pancreatic microenvironment and its prompt revascularization should be beneficial for long-term islet survival. In this study, we developed novel bioinks suitable for the microfluidic-assisted multi-material biofabrication of 3D porous pancreatic and vascular structures. The tissue-specific bioactivity was introduced by blending alginate either with pancreatic decellularized extracellular matrix powder (A_ECM)…

Novel Perspectives in Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Ailments through Analysis of Mechanical Wave Motion

Doctoral Thesis 2021 University of Illinois at Chicago
H. Palnitkar

The central theme of this dissertation is the observation that mechanical waves propagate and scatter at different velocities in biological tissues due to a difference in local material properties (such as viscosity and stiffness), due to the presence of inhomogeneities such as a blood vessel, an axon or a muscle filament. These scattered waves contain information about the characteristic stiffness, viscosity and the mechanical property inhomogeneity of the tissues through which they propagate; this information can aid in non-invasive diagnosis of disease and injury using novel quantitative techniques such as Insonification, Percussion and 1-Norm using Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). The…

Fabrication of a bio-instructive scaffold conferred with a favorable microenvironment allowing for superior implant osseointegration and accelerated in situ vascularized bone regeneration via type H vessel formation

Bioactive Materials 2022 Volume 9, Pages 491-507

The potential translation of bio-inert polymer scaffolds as bone substitutes is limited by the lack of neovascularization upon implantation and subsequently diminished ingrowth of host bone, most likely resulted from the inability to replicate appropriate endogenous crosstalk between cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (HdECM), which contains a collection of angiocrine biomolecules, has recently been demonstrated to mediate endothelial cells(ECs) – osteoprogenitors(OPs) crosstalk. We employed the HdECM to create a PCL (polycaprolactone)/fibrin/HdECM (PFE) hybrid scaffold. We hypothesized PFE scaffold could reconstitute a bio-instructive microenvironment that reintroduces the crosstalk, resulting in vascularized bone regeneration. Following implantation in a…

Development of bioinks for 3D printing microporous, sintered calcium phosphate scaffolds

Tissue Engineering Constructs and Cell Substrates 2021 Volume 32, Article number: 94

Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)-based bioinks were developed to support direct-ink 3D printing-based manufacturing of macroporous scaffolds. Binding of the gelatin:β-TCP ink compositions was optimized by adding carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to maximize the β-TCP content while maintaining printability. Post-sintering, the gelatin:β-TCP:CMC inks resulted in uniform grain size, uniform shrinkage of the printed structure, and included microporosity within the ceramic. The mechanical properties of the inks improved with increasing β-TCP content. The gelatin:β-TCP:CMC ink (25:75 gelatin:β-TCP and 3% CMC) optimized for mechanical strength was used to 3D print several architectures of macroporous scaffolds by varying the print nozzle tip diameter and pore spacing during…

Bioprinting and In Vitro Characterization of an Eggwhite-Based Cell-Laden Patch for Endothelialized Tissue Engineering Applications

Journal of Functional Biomaterials 2021 Volume 12, Issue 3, Article: 45

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging fabrication technique to create 3D constructs with living cells. Notably, bioprinting bioinks are limited due to the mechanical weakness of natural biomaterials and the low bioactivity of synthetic peers. This paper presents the development of a natural bioink from chicken eggwhite and sodium alginate for bioprinting cell-laden patches to be used in endothelialized tissue engineering applications. Eggwhite was utilized for enhanced biological properties, while sodium alginate was used to improve bioink printability. The rheological properties of bioinks with varying amounts of sodium alginate were examined with the results illustrating that 2.0–3.0% (w/v) sodium alginate…

Microengineered perfusable 3D-bioprinted glioblastoma model for in vivo mimicry of tumor microenvironment

Science Advances 2021 Volume 7, Issue 34, Article eabi9119

Many drugs show promising results in laboratory research but eventually fail clinical trials. We hypothesize that one main reason for this translational gap is that current cancer models are inadequate. Most models lack the tumor-stroma interactions, which are essential for proper representation of cancer complexed biology. Therefore, we recapitulated the tumor heterogenic microenvironment by creating fibrin glioblastoma bioink consisting of patient-derived glioblastoma cells, astrocytes, and microglia. In addition, perfusable blood vessels were created using a sacrificial bioink coated with brain pericytes and endothelial cells. We observed similar growth curves, drug response, and genetic signature of glioblastoma cells grown in our…

The effect of enhanced bone marrow in conjunction with 3D-printed PLA-HA in the repair of critical-sized bone defects in a rabbit model

Annals of Translational Medicine 2021 Volume 9, Issue 14, Article: 1134

Background: Traditionally, the iliac crest has been the most common harvesting site for autologous bone grafts; however, it has some limitations, including poor bone availability and donor-site morbidity. This study sought to explore the effect of enhanced bone marrow (eBM) in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D)-printed polylactide–hydroxyapatite (PLA-HA) scaffolds in the repair of critical-sized bone defects in a rabbit model. Methods: First, 3D-printed PLA-HA scaffolds were fabricated and evaluated using micro-computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty-seven New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=9 per group), and the defects were treated using 3D-printed PLA-HA scaffolds…

Bioactivity assessment of additively manufactured doped-HA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Transactions on Additive Manufacturing Meets Medicine 2021 Volume 3, Issue 1, Article 521

Composites are promising candidates for treating bone defects, but manufacturing of composite scaffolds is challenging. This study aimed to fabricate composite scaffolds based on polycaprolactone (PCL) and doped Hydroxyapatite (HA) via a single step melt extrusion additive manufacturing technique. Starting from the raw powder forms, the printed scaffolds were produced and then characterized for morphology, mechanical behavior and in vitro mineralization. MicroCT revealed the homogenous dispersion of ceramic particles in the PCL matrix. Also, SEM showed the ceramic particles on the surfaces of printed scaffolds. Furthermore, bioactivity assays confirmed the enhanced apatite deposit formation on composite scaffolds compared to PCL…

A 3D printed patient specific artificial outer ear model for use in auricle reconstruction surgery: a clinical feasibility study

Transactions on Additive Manufacturing Meets Medicine 2021 Volume 3, Issue 1, Article 505

Auricle reconstruction is a routine surgery in the field of Otolaryngology but the design of the reconstruction is based on the clinicians guess of the correct previous anatomy. Using additive manufacturing processes to build a model the surgeon can refer to may be a good substitute for conventional surgery. The quality of the framework replicating the three-dimensional architecture of the ear and precise sculpting of the anatomical structures are necessary in order to reach a desired outcome. In this work we present the workflow to produce an individualized 3D outer ear model for use in auricle reconstruction surgery and report…

MicroRNA-activated hydrogel scaffold generated by 3D printing accelerates bone regeneration

Bioactive Materials 2022 Volume 10, Pages 1-14

Bone defects remain a major threat to human health and bone tissue regeneration has become a prominent clinical demand worldwide. The combination of microRNA (miRNA) therapy with 3D printed scaffolds has always posed a challenge. It can mimic physiological bone healing processes, in which a biodegradable scaffold is gradually replaced by neo-tissue, and the sustained release of miRNA plays a vital role in creating an optimal osteogenic microenvironment, thus achieving promising bone repair outcomes. However, the balance between two key factors – scaffold degradation behavior and miRNA release profile – on osteogenesis and bone formation is still poorly understood. Herein,…

Optimized alginate-based 3D printed scaffolds as a model of patient derived breast cancer microenvironments in drug discovery

Biomedical Materials 2021 Volume 16, Number 4, Article 045046

The cancer microenvironment influences tumor progression and metastasis and is pivotal to consider when designing in vivo-like cancer models. Current preclinical testing platforms for cancer drug development are mainly limited to 2D cell culture systems that poorly mimic physiological environments and traditional, low throughput animal models. The aim of this work was to produce a tunable testing platform based on 3D printed scaffolds (3DPS) with a simple geometry that, by extracellular components and response of breast cancer reporter cells, mimics patient-derived scaffolds (PDS) of breast cancer. Here, the biocompatible polysaccharide alginate was used as base material to generate scaffolds consisting…

Finite element analysis of the performance of additively manufactured scaffolds for scapholunate ligament reconstruction

PLoS ONE 2021 Volume 16, Issue 11, Article: e0256528

Rupture of the scapholunate interosseous ligament can cause the dissociation of scaphoid and lunate bones, resulting in impaired wrist function. Current treatments (e.g., tendon-based surgical reconstruction, screw-based fixation, fusion, or carpectomy) may restore wrist stability, but do not address regeneration of the ruptured ligament, and may result in wrist functional limitations and osteoarthritis. Recently a novel multiphasic bone-ligament-bone scaffold was proposed, which aims to reconstruct the ruptured ligament, and which can be 3D-printed using medical-grade polycaprolactone. This scaffold is composed of a central ligament-scaffold section and features a bone attachment terminal at either end. Since the ligament-scaffold is the primary…

3D Printable and Biocompatible Iongels for Body Sensor Applications

Advanced Electronic Materials 2021 Volume 7, Issue 8, Article 2100178

Soft-ionic materials with biocompatibility and 3D printability are needed to develop next-generation devices to interface between electronic and biological signals. Herein, thermoreversible and biocompatible ionic liquid gels or iongels, which can be processed by direct ink writing are reported. The iongels are designed by taking advantage of polyvinyl alcohol/phenol interactions to gelify biocompatible cholinium carboxylate ionic liquids. The obtained iongels are stable, soft, and flexible materials (Young modulus between 14 and 70 kPa) with high ionic conductivity (1.8 × 10–2 S cm–1). Interestingly, they presented thermoreversible properties with gel–sol transitions ranging from 85 and 110 °C, which allows the iongel…

Patient-derived scaffolds as a drug-testing platform for endocrine therapies in breast cancer

Scientific Reports 2021 Volume 11, Article number: 13334

Three-dimensional cell culture platforms based on decellularised patient-based microenvironments provide in vivo-like growth conditions allowing cancer cells to interact with intact structures and components of the surrounding tissue. A patient-derived scaffold (PDS) model was therefore evaluated as a testing platform for the endocrine therapies (Z)-4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) and fulvestrant as well as the CDK4/6-inhibitor palbociclib, monitoring the treatment responses in breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D adapted to the patient-based microenvironments. MCF7 cells growing in PDSs showed increased resistance to 4OHT and fulvestrant treatment (100- and 20-fold) compared to 2D cultures. Quantitative PCR analyses of endocrine treated cancer cells in…

Recycled algae-based carbon materials as electroconductive 3D printed skeletal muscle tissue engineering scaffolds

Tissue Engineering Constructs and Cell Substrates 2021 Volume 32, Article number: 73

Skeletal muscle is an electrically and mechanically active tissue that contains highly oriented, densely packed myofibrils. The tissue has self-regeneration capacity upon injury, which is limited in the cases of volumetric muscle loss. Several regenerative therapies have been developed in order to enhance this capacity, as well as to structurally and mechanically support the defect site during regeneration. Among them, biomimetic approaches that recapitulate the native microenvironment of the tissue in terms of parallel-aligned structure and biophysical signals were shown to be effective. In this study, we have developed 3D printed aligned and electrically active scaffolds in which the electrical…

Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells Produce Distinct Neural 3D In Vitro Models Depending on Alginate/Gellan Gum/Laminin Hydrogel Blend Properties

Advanced Healthcare Materials 2021 Volume 10, Issue 16, Article 2100131

Stable and predictive neural cell culture models are a necessary premise for many research fields. However, conventional 2D models lack 3D cell-material/-cell interactions and hence do not reflect the complexity of the in vivo situation properly. Here two alginate/gellan gum/laminin (ALG/GG/LAM) hydrogel blends are presented for the fabrication of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based 3D neural models. For hydrogel embedding, hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (hiNPCs) are used either directly or after 3D neural pre-differentiation. It is shown that stiffness and stress relaxation of the gel blends, as well as the cell differentiation strategy influence 3D model development. The embedded…

Additively manufactured BaTiO3 composite scaffolds: A novel strategy for load bearing bone tissue engineering applications

Materials Science and Engineering: C 2021 Volume 126, Article 112192

Piezoelectric ceramics, such as BaTiO3, have gained considerable attention in bone tissue engineering applications thanks to their biocompatibility, ability to sustain a charged surface as well as improve bone cells’ adhesion and proliferation. However, the poor processability and brittleness of these materials hinder the fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds for load bearing tissue engineering applications. For the first time, this study focused on the fabrication and characterisation of BaTiO3 composite scaffolds by using a multi-material 3D printing technology. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was selected and used as dispersion phase for its low melting point, easy processability and wide adoption in bone tissue engineering….

Coupling machine learning with 3D bioprinting to fast track optimisation of extrusion printing

Applied Materials Today 2021 Volume 22, Article 100914

3D bioprinting, a paradigm shift in tissue engineering holds a promising perspective for regenerative medicine and disease modelling. 3D scaffolds are fabricated for subsequent cell seeding or incorporated directly to the bioink to create cell-laden 3D constructs. A plethora of factors relating to bioink properties, printing parameters and post print curing play a significant role in the optimisation of the printing process. Although qualitative evaluation of printability has been investigated largely, there is a paucity of studies on quantitative approaches to assess printability. Hence, this study explores machine learning as a novel tool to evaluate printability quantitatively and to fast…

Hierarchically-porous metallic scaffolds via 3D extrusion and reduction of oxide particle inks with salt space-holders

Additive Manufacturing 2021 Volume 37, Article 101637

3D ink-extrusion of powders followed by sintering is an emerging additive manufacturing method capable of creating metallic microlattices. Here, we study the creation of hierarchically porous Fe or Ni scaffolds by 3D extrusion of 0/90° lattices from inks consisting of fine oxide powders (Fe2O3 or NiO, < 3 µm), coarse space-holder particles (CuSO4, < 45 µm) and a polymer binder within a solvent. After space-holder leaching and debinding of the lattices, a sintering step densifies the metallic Fe or Ni powders created by oxide reduction with H2, while maintaining the larger pores templated by the space-holder particles within the printed...

Spatial alignment of 3D printed scaffolds modulates genotypic expression in pre-osteoblasts

Materials Letters 2020 Volume 276, Article 128189

3D printing, an advent from rapid prototyping technology is emerging as a suitable solution for various regenerative engineering applications. In this study, blended gelatin-sodium alginate 3D printed scaffolds with different pore geometries were developed by altering the spatial alignment of even layered struts in the scaffolds. A significant difference in compression modulus and osteogenic expression due to the difference in spatial printing was demonstrated. Pore geometry was found to be more dominant than the compressive modulus of the scaffold in regulating osteogenic gene expression. A shift in pore geometry by at least 45° was critical for significant increase in osteogenic…

Integrative treatment of anti-tumor/bone repair by combination of MoS2 nanosheets with 3D printed bioactive borosilicate glass scaffolds

Chemical Engineering Journal 2020 Volume 396, Article 125081

Malignant bone tumors have caused great obstacles and serious illnesses for tumor recurrence and difficulty in reconstructing and repairing large defects after tumorectomy. Additionally, long-term efficacy, satisfactory biocompatibility and excellent properties for anti-tumor agents are necessary in the biomedical field. To solve these problems, a novel idea has been proposed on building an integrative anti-tumor/bone repairing scaffold by covering photothermal therapy (PTT) composite MoS2-PLGA film on the surface of borosilicate bioactive glass (BG). In our study, the MoS2-integrated composite BG (BGM) scaffolds can rapidly and effectively elevate temperature, and they exhibited excellent photothermal stability, under 808 nm laser irradiation. Notably,…

3D ink-extrusion printing and sintering of Ti, Ti-TiB and Ti-TiC microlattices

Additive Manufacturing 2020 Volume 35, Article 101412

Titanium metal matrix composite microlattices are fabricated using 3D ink extrusion printing and sintering. The inks consist of TiH2+TiB2 or TiH2+TiC powder blends to form (i) Ti-TiB composites by dehydrogenation and in situ reaction of Ti + TiB2 to form Ti + TiB and (ii) Ti-TiC composites, where TiC remains stable during the sintering process. Rapid densification of the printed powder blend is achieved during pressureless sintering in vacuum at 1200 °C between 1 and 4 h, due to the small Ti particle size available from dehydrogenation of micron-sized TiH2. Near-full density Ti-TiB and Ti-TiC is achieved within individual lattice…

High-temperature mechanical properties of γ/γ′ Co–Ni–W–Al superalloy microlattices

Scripta Materialia 2020 Volume 188, Pages 146-150

Cobalt-based superalloy microlattices were created via (i) three-dimensional-extrusion printing of inks containing a suspension of Co-, Ni- and W-oxide particles, (ii) H2-reduction of the oxides and sintering to a homogenous Co-Ni-W alloy, (iii) Al pack-cementation to deposit Al on the microlattice struts, followed by Al-homogenization. The resulting Co-(18–20)Ni-(5–6)W-(10–13)Al (at.%) microlattices, with 27–30% relative density and 350 μm diameter struts, display a peak in yield strength at 750°C, consistent with their γ/γ′ aged microstructure. Oxidation resistance is strongly improved compared to Al-free printed Co-Ni-W lattices, via the formation of an Al2O3 surface layer. However, the resulting Al depletion within the struts…

Extrusion-based printing of chitosan scaffolds and their in vitro characterization for cartilage tissue engineering

International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2020 Volume 164, Pages 3179-3192

Researchers have looked to cartilage tissue engineering to address the lack of cartilage regenerative capability related to cartilage disease/trauma. For this, a promising approach is extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D) printing technique to deliver cells, biomaterials, and growth factors within a scaffold to the injured site. This paper evaluates the printability of chitosan scaffolds for a cartilage tissue engineering, with a focus on identifying the influence of drying technique implemented before crosslinking on the improvement of chitosan printability. First, the printability of chitosan with concentrations of 8%, 10%, and 12% (w/v) was evaluated and 10% chitosan was selected for further studies. Then,…

In vitro characterisation of 3D printed platelet lysate-based bioink for potential application in skin tissue engineering

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 123, Pages 286-297

Wounds impact millions of patients every year and represent a serious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet current treatment outcomes are far from ideal. Therapies based on delivery of multiple growth factors offer a promising approach for optimal wound management; however, their high production cost, low stability, and lack of effective delivery system limits their application in the clinic. Platelet lysate is a suitable, abundant and cost-effective source of growth factors that play an important role in the healing cascade. The aim of this current work is to develop an extrusion-based bioink consisting of platelet lysate (PL) and gelatin…

Solvent evaporation induced fabrication of porous polycaprolactone scaffold via low-temperature 3D printing for regeneration medicine researches

Polymer 2021 Volume 217, Article 123436

Liquid deposition modeling (LDM) is an evolving three-dimensional (3D) printing approach that mainly utilizes polymer solutions to enable the fabrication of biomedical scaffolds under mild conditions. A deep understanding of the rheological properties of polymer printing inks and the features of yielded scaffolds are critical for a successful LDM based fabrication of biomedical scaffolds. In this work, polymer printing inks comprised of Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), sodium chloride (NaCl), and trichloromethane (CHCl3) were prepared. The rheological properties, including extrudability (shear stress, viscosity, and shear-thinning) and self-supporting ability (viscosity) of all printing inks were analyzed. Then printing performance was evaluated by measuring the…

Impact of cell density on the bioprinting of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) bioinks

Bioprinting 2021 Volume 22, Article e00131

3D printing of cell laden bioinks has the potential to recapitulate the hierarchical and spatial complexity of native tissues. However, the addition of cells can alter physical properties of printable resins, which in turn may impede or induce cellular sedimentation or affect the printability and shape fidelity of the final construct. In this study we investigated these considerations by bioprinting gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) bioinks, loaded with various concentrations of mouse fibroblast cells (L929), using extrusion-based direct-write 3D printing (EDP). The impact of various cellular concentrations on viscosity, and temperature-driven gelation of GelMA was examined with a rheometer. The effect of…

A comprehensive study of acid and base treatment of 3D printed poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds to tailor surface characteristics

Applied Surface Science 2021 Volume 555, Article 149602

Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) chain cleavage results in the formation of polar terminal species, comprising hydroxy and carboxyl groups that enhance surface hydrophilicity and enable subsequent biofunctionalization. However, the direct effects of various acidic and basic treatments on 3D printed PCL scaffolds have not been studied from a functional perspective. In this study, we comprehensively assessed the influence of acid (hydrochloric, HCl) and base (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) catalyzed hydrolysis across different conditions on various properties of 3D printed PCL scaffolds. Analyses included testing of physiochemical and mechanical properties, and assessment of rate and stability of surface-nucleating bioactive apatite-like minerals. HCl exposure resulted…

Mesoporous calcium silicate and titanium composite scaffolds via 3D-printing for improved properties in bone repair

Ceramics International 2021 Volume 47, Issue 13, Pages 18905-18912

Calcium silicate (CS) composite bone tissue engineering scaffolds were three-dimensionally printed using titanium metallic powders as the second strengthening phase for overcoming the inherent brittleness and fast degradability. In order to promote the sintering process of all composite scaffolds, mesoporous structure was further introduced into sol-gel-derived CS powders obtaining mesoporous CS (MCS) with larger surface area. The influences of mesoporous structure, sintering temperature and Ti content have been investigated through comparisons of the final scaffold composition, microstructure, compressive strength and in vitro stability. Results showed that CS matrix materials reacted with Ti could form less degradable CaTiO3 and TiC ceramic…

Three-dimensional printing of click functionalized, peptide patterned scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering

Bioprinting 2021 Volume 22, Article e00136

Osteochondral repair remains a significant clinical challenge due to the multiple tissue phenotypes and complex biochemical milieu in the osteochondral unit. To repair osteochondral defects, it is necessary to mimic the gradation between bone and cartilage, which requires spatial patterning of multiple tissue-specific cues. To address this need, we have developed a facile system for the conjugation and patterning of tissue-specific peptides by melt extrusion of peptide-functionalized poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). In this study, alkyne-terminated PCL was conjugated to tissue-specific peptides via a mild, aqueous, and Ru(II)-catalyzed click reaction. The PCL-peptide composites were then 3D printed by multimaterial segmented printing to generate…

Direct ink writing of dehydrofluorinated Poly(Vinylidene Difluoride) for microfiltration membrane fabrication

Journal of Membrane Science 2021 Volume 632, Article 119347

Here, a hybrid process for the fabrication of dehydrofluorinated PVDF (dPVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes is presented. dPVDF was fabricated through the bulk modification of PVDF using ethylenediamine. To produce inks for direct ink writing (DIW), the dPVDF was dissolved in N,N-dimethyacetamide along with a pore-forming agent, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) (5–30 wt%, relative to dPVDF concentration). Membranes were produced by direct ink writing of the inks into continuous films – followed by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). Attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies confirmed alkene moieties within the dPVDF polymer, resulting from the dehydrofluorination process. The…

Microstructure and compressive properties of 3D-extrusion-printed, aluminized cobalt-based superalloy microlattices

Materials Science and Engineering: A 2021 Volume 815, Article 141262

Cobalt-based superalloy microlattices with γ/γ′ microstructure are manufactured by combining two additive methods: ink-extrusion 3D-printing and pack-cementation surface alloying. First, a microlattice green structure is 3D-printed at ambient temperature from inks comprised of Co3O4, NiO, and WO3 powders, an elastomeric binder and solvents. Organic removal followed by oxide reduction under Ar-5% H2, sintering and homogenization at 1250 °C lead to a metallic microlattice with dense struts with uniform γ (fcc)-Co–22Ni–8W (at.%) composition. Second, aluminum is deposited on the strut surfaces via pack-cementation at 1000 °C, diffused at 1300 °C through the strut volume to achieve a uniform composition (Co–20Ni–6W–10Al or…

Osteoinductivity and biomechanical assessment of a 3D printed demineralized bone matrix-ceramic composite in a rat spine fusion model

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 127, Pages 146-158

We recently developed a recombinant growth factor-free bone regenerative scaffold composed of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic particles and human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) particles (HA-DBM). Here, we performed the first pre-clinical comparative evaluation of HA-DBM relative to the industry standard and established positive control, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), using a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model (PLF). Female Sprague–Dawley rats underwent bilateral L4-L5 PLF with implantation of the HA-DBM scaffold or rhBMP-2. Fusion was evaluated using radiography and blinded manual palpation, while biomechanical testing quantified the segmental flexion-extension range-of-motion (ROM) and stiffness of the fused segments at 8-weeks postoperatively….

Remote triggering of TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling in human adipose stem cells laden on magnetic scaffolds synergistically promotes tenogenic commitmen

Acta Biomaterialia 2020 Volume 113, Pages 488-500

Injuries affecting load bearing tendon tissues are a significant clinical burden and efficient treatments are still unmet. Tackling tendon regeneration, tissue engineering strategies aim to develop functional substitutes that recreate native tendon milieu. Tendon mimetic scaffolds capable of remote magnetic responsiveness and functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) targeting cellular mechanosensitive receptors are potential instructive tools to mediate mechanotransduction in guiding tenogenic responses. In this work, we combine magnetically responsive scaffolds and targeted Activin A type II receptor in human adipose stem cells (hASCs), under alternating magnetic field (AMF), to synergistically facilitate external control over signal transduction. The combination of remote triggering…

Kinetics of alloy formation and densification in Fe-Ni-Mo microfilaments extruded from oxide- or metal-powder inks

Acta Materialia 2020 Volume 193, Pages 51-60

3D ink-extrusion of powders followed by sintering is an emerging alternative to beam-based additive manufacturing, capable of creating 3D metallic objects from 1D-extruded microfilaments. Here, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomography are combined to study the phase evolution, alloy formation and sinter-densification of Fe-20Ni-5Mo (at.%) microfilaments. The filaments are

Shape memory epoxy composites with high mechanical performance manufactured by multi-material direct ink writing

Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 2020 Volume 135, Article 105903

Using 3D printing to manufacture shape memory polymers (SMPs) becomes popular, since the technique endows SMPs the ability to shape into desired structures according to their applications. Among various types of SMPs, epoxy-based shape memory polymer and their composites are known for their high modulus and strength. However, limited by their rheological behavior, it is still hard to prepare high-quality printable epoxy materials. Here, by carefully tuning of rheological properties, we can prepare printable ink showing good shape retention, excellent mechanical performances below and above the glass transition temperature of epoxy, as well as good shape memory effect. The prepared…

3D bioprinted multiscale composite scaffolds based on gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)/chitosan microspheres as a modular bioink for enhancing 3D neurite outgrowth and elongation

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2020 Volume 574, Pages 162-173

The integration of multiscale micro- and macroenvironment has been demonstrated as a critical role in designing biomimetic scaffolds for peripheral nerve tissue regeneration. While it remains a remarkable challenge for developing a biomimetic multiscale scaffold for enhancing 3D neuronal maturation and outgrowth. Herein, we present a 3D bioprinted multiscale scaffold based on a modular bioink for integrating the 3D micro- and macroenvironment of native nerve tissue. Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)/Chitosan Microspheres (GC-MSs) were prepared by a microfluidic approach, and the effect of these microspheres on enhancing neurite outgrowth and elongation of PC12 cells was demonstrated. The 3D multiscale composite scaffolds were…

SnO2-Ag composites with high thermal cycling stability created by Ag infiltration of 3D ink-extruded SnO2 microlattices

Applied Materials Today 2020 Volume 21, Article 100794

SnO2-Ag composites with designed architectures with sub-millimeter feature sizes can provide enhanced functionality in electrical applications. SnO2-Ag composites consisting of a ceramic SnO2 micro-lattice filled with metallic Ag are created via a hybrid additive manufacturing method. The multistep process includes: (i) 3D extrusion printing of 0/90° cross-ply micro-lattices from SnO2-7%CuO nanoparticle-loaded ink; (ii) thermal treatment in air to burn the binders and sinter struts of the SnO2 micro-lattice to ~94% relative density; (iii) Ag melt infiltration of channels of sintered micro-lattices. Densification of the SnO2 struts during air-sintering is accelerated by CuO liquid phase forming at 1100°C. During the subsequent…

3D printing of clay for decorative architectural applications: Effect of solids volume fraction on rheology and printability

Additive Manufacturing 2020 Volume 35, Article 101335

The effect of varying the solids volume fraction of an aqueous clay paste suspension on its printability via an Additive Manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing technique, Direct Ink Writing (DIW) or material extrusion, has been studied. DIW is a cost-effective and straightforward fabrication technology suitable for adoption at a larger scale by the traditional ceramics industry and the creative community. The pastes were prepared with volume fraction of solids ranging from 25–57 vol%. Their rheological properties (storage modulus and apparent yield stress) were measured by dynamic oscillatory rheometry. The relationships between solids content, rheological behaviour and print parameters were evaluated. An…

3D-Printing with precise layer-wise dose adjustments for paediatric use via pressure-assisted microsyringe printing

European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 2020 Volume 157, Pages 59-65

The establishment of 3D-printing as manufacturing process for oral solid dosage forms enables new options for the individualized medicine. The aim of this work was to develop a novel drug-printing model using pressure-assisted microsyringe (PAM) technology, which allows the precise dispensing of drug substances. Printed tablets with different numbers of layers, mimicking different doses for pediatric subgroups, were analyzed regarding mass variation, friability, thickness and disintegration time. Furthermore, the uniformity of dosage units and the dissolution behavior were investigated. Friability was

Microfabricated and 3-D printed electroconductive hydrogels of PEDOT:PSS and their application in bioelectronics

Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2020 Volume 168, Article 112568

Biofabrication techniques such as microlithography and 3-D bioprinting have emerged in recent years as technologies capable of rendering complex, biocompatible constructs for biosensors, tissue and regenerative engineering and bioelectronics. While instruments and processes have been the subject of immense advancement, multifunctional bioinks have received less attention. A novel photocrosslinkable, hybrid bioactive and inherently conductive bioink formed from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nanomaterials within poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-polyethyleneglycol methacrylate) p(HEMA-co-EGMA) was used to render complex hydrogel constructs through microlithographic fabrication and 3-D printing. Constructs were directly compared through established metrics of acuity and fidelity, using side-by-side comparison of microarray grids, triangles incorporating angles 15–90°,…

Engineering hiPSC-CM and hiPSC-EC laden 3D nanofibrous splenic hydrogel for improving cardiac function through revascularization and remuscularization in infarcted heart

Bioactive Materials 2021 Volume 6, Issue 12, Pages 4415-4429

Cell therapy has been a promising strategy for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI), but a poor ischemic environment and low cell delivery efficiency remain significant challenges. The spleen serves as a hematopoietic stem cell niche and secretes cardioprotective factors after MI, but it is unclear whether it could be used for human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) cultivation and provide a proper microenvironment for cell grafts against the ischemic environment. Herein, we developed a splenic extracellular matrix derived thermoresponsive hydrogel (SpGel). Proteomics analysis indicated that SpGel is enriched with proteins known to modulate the Wnt signaling pathway, cell-substrate adhesion, cardiac…

Highly Conductive Silicone Elastomers via Environment-Friendly Swelling and In Situ Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

Advanced Materials Interfaces 2021 Volume 8, Issue 9, Article 2100137

Flexible and stretchable conductors are crucial components for next-generation flexible devices. Wrinkled structures often have been created on such conductors by depositing conductive materials on the pre-stretched or organic solvent swollen samples. Herein, water swelling is first proposed to generate the wrinkled structures on silicone elastomers. By immersing silicone/sugar hybrid in water, a significant amount of swelling occurs as a result of osmosis and capillary interactions with the sugar and silicone matrix. Considering the drastic swelling effect and controllable swelling ratio, water swelling is used to replace the conventional pre-stretching and organic solvent swelling to fabricate stretchable conductors. In situ…

The effect of induced membranes combined with enhanced bone marrow and 3D PLA-HA on repairing long bone defects in vivo

Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2020 Volume 14, Issue 10, Pages 1403-1414

The repair of large bone defects has always been a challenge, especially with respect to regeneration capacity and autogenous bone availability. To address this problem, we fabricated a 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold (3D-printed PLA-HA, providing scaffold) loaded with enhanced bone marrow (eBM, providing seed cells) combined with induced membrane (IM, providing grow factors) to repair large radial defects in rabbits. in vitro assays, we demonstrated that 3D-printed PLA-HA had excellent biocompatibility, as shown by co-culturing with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); eBM-derived MSCs exhibited considerable differentiation potential, as shown in trilineage differentiation assays. To investigate bone formation…

Paper-Based, Chemiresistive Sensor for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection

Advanced Materials Technologies 2021 Volume 6, Issue 4, Article 2001148

Detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the side product of enzymatic reactions is of great interest in food and medical applications. Despite the advances in this field, the majority of reported H2O2 sensors are bulky, expensive, limited to only one phase detection (either gas or liquid), and require multistep fabrications. This article aims to address some of these limitations by presenting a 3D printable paper-based sensor made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) decorated with horseradish peroxidase, an enzyme able to interact with H2O2. Unlike most electrochemical PEDOT:PSS-based H2O2 sensors with voltametric or potentiometric mechanisms, the sensing mechanism in this technology is impedimetric, significantly…

Experimental investigation of esophageal reconstruction with electrospun polyurethane nanofiber and 3D printing polycaprolactone scaffolds using a rat model

Head & Neck 2021 Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 833-848

Background We evaluated the outcome of esophageal reconstructions using tissue-engineered scaffolds. Method Partial esophageal defects were reconstructed with the following scaffolds; animals were grouped (n = 7 per group) as follows: (a) normal rats; (b) rats implanted with three-dimensional printing (3DP) polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds; (c) with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC)-seeded 3DP PCL scaffolds; (d) with polyurethane (PU)-nanofiber(Nf) scaffolds; and (e) with ADSC-seeded PU-Nf scaffolds. Results The esophageal defects were successfully repaired; however, muscle regeneration was greater in the 3DP PCL + ADSC groups than in the PU-Nf + ADSC groups (P 

The performance of 3D bioscaffolding based on a human periodontal ligament stem cell printing technique

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 2021 Volume 109, Issue 7, Pages 1209-1219

Bone tissue plays an important role in supporting and protecting the structure and function of the human body. Bone defects are a common source of injury and there are many reconstruction challenges in clinical practice. However, 3D bioprinting of scaffolds provides a promising solution. Hydrogels have emerged as biomaterials with good biocompatibility and are now widely used as cell-loaded materials for bioprinting. This study involved three steps: First, sodium alginate (SA), gelatin (Gel), and nano-hydroxyapatite (na-HA) were mixed into a hydrogel and its rheological properties assessed to identify the optimum slurry for printing. Second, SA/Gel/na-HA bioscaffolds were printed using 3D…

Mechanical Properties Tailoring of 3D Printed Photoresponsive Nanocellulose Composites

Advanced Functional Materials 2020 Volume 30, Issue 35, Article 2002914

3D printing technologies allow control over the alignment of building blocks in synthetic materials, but compositional changes often require complex multimaterial printing steps. Here, 3D printable materials showing locally tunable mechanical properties are produced in a single printing step of Direct Ink Writing. These new inks consist of a polymer matrix bearing biocompatible photoreactive cinnamate derivatives and up to 30 wt% of anisotropic cellulose nanocrystals. The printed materials are mechanically versatile and can undergo further crosslinking upon illumination. When illuminating the material and controlling the irradiation doses, the Young’s moduli can be adjusted between 15 and 75 MPa. Moreover, spatially…

Freeform 3D printing using a continuous viscoelastic supporting matrix

Biofabrication 2020 Volume 12, Number 3, Article 035017

Embedded bio-printing has fostered significant advances toward the fabrication of soft complex tissue-like constructs, by providing a physical support that allows the freeform shape maintenance within the prescribed spatial arrangement, even under gravity force. Current supporting materials still present major drawbacks for up-scaling embedded 3D bio-printing technology towards tissue-like constructs with clinically relevant dimensions. Herein, we report a a cost-effective and widely available supporting material for embedded bio-printing consisting on a continuous pseudo-plastic matrix of xanthan-gum (XG). This natural polisaccharide exhibits peculiar rheological properties that have enabled the rapid generation of complex volumetric 3D constructs with out-of-plane features. The freedom…

Digestion degree is a key factor to regulate the printability of pure tendon decellularized extracellular matrix bio-ink in extrusion-based 3D cell printing

Biofabrication 2020 Volume 12, Number 4, Article 045011

Improving the printability of pure, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) bio-ink without altering its physiological components has been a challenge in three-dimensional (3D) cell printing. To improve the printability of the bio-ink, we first investigated the digestion process of the powdered dECM material obtained from porcine tendons. We manifested the digestion process of tendon derived dECM powders, which includes dissolution, gelatinization and solubilization. After a short dissolution period (around 10 min), we observed a ‘High viscosity slurry’ status (3 h) of the dECM precursors, i.e. the gelatinization process, followed by the solubilization processes, i.e. a ‘Medium viscosity slurry’ period (12 h)…

Dual-crosslinked 3D printed gelatin scaffolds with potential for temporomandibular joint cartilage regeneration

Biomedical Materials 2021 Volume 16, Number 3, Article 035026

A promising alternative to current treatment options for degenerative conditions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is cartilage tissue engineering, using 3D printed scaffolds and mesenchymal stem cells. Gelatin, with its inherent biocompatibility and printability has been proposed as a scaffold biomaterial, but because of its thermoreversible properties, rapid degradation and inadequate strength it must be crosslinked to be stable in physiological conditions. The aim of this study was to identify non-toxic and effective crosslinking methods intended to improve the physical properties of 3D printed gelatin scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. Dehydrothermal (DHT), ribose glycation and dual crosslinking with both DHT and…

Hierarchical patterning via dynamic sacrificial printing of stimuli-responsive hydrogels

Biofabrication 2020 Volume 12, Number 3, Article 035007

Inspired by stimuli-tailored dynamic processes that spatiotemporally create structural and functional diversity in biology, a new hierarchical patterning strategy is proposed to induce the emergence of complex multidimensional structures via dynamic sacrificial printing of stimuli-responsive hydrogels. Using thermally responsive gelatin (Gel) and pH-responsive chitosan (Chit) as proof-of-concept materials, we demonstrate that the initially printed sacrificial material (Gel/Chit-H+ hydrogel with a single gelatin network) can be converted dynamically into non-sacrificial material (Gel/Chit-H+–Citr hydrogel with gelatin and an electrostatic citrate–chitosan dual network) under stimulus cues (citrate ions). Complex hierarchical structures and functions can be created by controlling either the printing patterns of…

In vitro characterization of hierarchical 3D scaffolds produced by combining additive manufacturing and thermally induced phase separation

Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 2021 Volume 32, Issue 4, Pages 454-476

This paper reports on the hybrid process we have used for producing hierarchical scaffolds made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), analyzes their internal structures via scanning electron microscopy, and presents the results of our in vitro proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for 0 and 21 days. These scaffolds were produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) techniques. Slow cooling at a rate of 1.5 °C/min during the TIPS process was used to enable a uniform temperature throughout the scaffolds, and therefore, a relatively uniform pore size range. We produced ten different…

A powerful combination in designing polymeric scaffolds: 3D bioprinting and cryogelation

International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials 2020 Volume 71, Issue 4, Pages 278-290

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technologies have great attention in different researching areas such as tissue engineering, medicine, etc. due to its maximum mimetic property of natural biomaterials by providing cell combination, growth factors, and other biomaterials. Bioprinting of tissues, organs, or drug delivery systems emerged layer-by-layer deposition of bioinks. 3D bioprinting technique has some complexity such as choice of bioink combination, cell type, growth, and differentiation. In this study, a composite material in 3D bioprinting studies has been developed for biofabrication of the cell carrying scaffolds namely cryogenic scaffolds. Cryogenic scaffolds are highly elastic and have a continuous interconnected macroporous structure…

Edible meta-atoms

arXiv 2021 Condensed Matter > Soft Condensed Matter, Article 2103.14909

Metamaterials are artificial structures with unusual and superior properties that come from their carefully designed building blocks — also called meta-atoms. Metamaterials have permeated large swatches of science, including electromagnetics and mechanics. Although metamaterials hold the promise for realizing technological advances, their potential to enhance interactions between humans and materials has remained unexplored. Here, we devise meta-atoms with tailored fracture properties to control mouthfeel sensory experience. Using chocolate as a model material, we first use meta-atoms to control the fracture anisotropy and the number of cracks and demonstrate that these properties are captured in mouthfeel experience. We further use topology…

Control Delivery of Multiple Growth Factors to Actively Steer Differentiation and Extracellular Matrix Protein Production

Advanced Biology 2021 Volume 5, Issue 4, Article 2000205

In tissue engineering, biomaterials have been used to steer the host response. This determines the outcome of tissue regeneration, which is modulated by multiple growth factors (GFs). Hence, a sustainable delivery system for GFs is necessary to control tissue regeneration actively. A delivery technique of single and multiple GF combinations, using a layer‐by‐layer (LBL) procedure to improve tissue remodeling, is developed. TGF‐β1, PDGF‐ββ, and IGF‐1 are incorporated on tailor‐made polymeric rods, which could be used as a tool for potential tissue engineering applications, such as templates to induce the formation of in situ tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). Cell response…

3D printed silk-gelatin hydrogel scaffold with different porous structure and cell seeding strategy for cartilage regeneration

Bioactive Materials 2021 Volume 6, Issue 10, Pages 3396-3410

Hydrogel scaffolds are attractive for tissue defect repair and reorganization because of their human tissue-like characteristics. However, most hydrogels offer limited cell growth and tissue formation ability due to their submicron- or nano-sized gel networks, which restrict the supply of oxygen, nutrients and inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of encapsulated cells. In recent years, 3D printed hydrogels have shown great potential to overcome this problem by introducing macro-pores within scaffolds. In this study, we fabricated a macroporous hydrogel scaffold through horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated crosslinking of silk fibroin (SF) and tyramine-substituted gelatin (GT) by extrusion-based low-temperature 3D printing. Through physicochemical characterization,…

Bioprinting and In Vitro Characterization of an Egg White-Based Cardiac Patch for Myocardial Infarction

University of Saskatchewan 2021 Dissertation
Y. Delkash

Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack occurs when the bloodstream to the heart is blocked, which may destroy a part of the heart muscle (or myocardium) and form perdurable scarred tissue. The infarcted myocardial muscle nowadays has no revival treatments, and also transplantation is limited as an option. Tissue engineering has the potential to restore myocardial function after an MI by fabricating tailored tissues for treatment. For tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a fabrication method to create 3D constructs with living cells, which would be impossible by other traditional methods. Although various biomaterials, biologically-derived or synthetic, are available, only…

3D porous Ti6Al4V-beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds directly fabricated by additive manufacturing

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 126, Pages 496-510

3D Ti6Al4V-beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) hybrid scaffolds with interconnected porous network and controllable porosity and pore size were successfully produced by three-dimensional fiber deposition (3DF). The macrostructure of scaffolds was determined by the 3D design, whereas the micro- and submicron structure were derived from the Ti6Al4V powder sintering and the crystalline TCP powder, respectively. Ti6Al4V-TCP slurry was developed for 3DF by optimizing the TCP powder size, Ti6Al4V-to-TCP powder ratio and Ti6Al4V-TCP powder content. Moreover, the air pressure and fiber deposition rate were optimized. A maximum achievable ceramic content in the Ti6Al4V-TCP slurry that enables 3DF manufacturing was 10 wt%. The chemical…

Interfacial Piezoelectric Polarization Locking in Printable Ti3C2Tx MXene-Fluoropolymer Composites

arXiv 2021 Condensed Matter > Materials Science, Article 2101.12211

Piezoelectric fluoropolymers convert mechanical energy to electricity and are ideal for sustainably providing power to electronic devices. To convert mechanical energy, a net polarization must be induced in the fluoropolymer, which is currently achieved via an energy intensive electrical poling process. Eliminating this process will enable the low-energy production of efficient energy harvesters. Here, by combining molecular dynamics simulations, piezoresponse force microscopy, and electrodynamic measurements, we reveal a hitherto unseen polarization locking phenomena of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) perpendicular to the basal plane of two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2Tx MXene nanosheets. This polarization locking, driven by strong electrostatic interactions enabled exceptional energy harvesting…

3D printing of shape-morphing and antibacterial anisotropic nanocellulose hydrogels

Carbohydrate Polymers 2021 Volume 259, Article 117716

We report on a procedure for the preparation, printing and curing of antibacterial poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanocellulose-reinforced hydrogels. These composites present a highly anisotropic microstructure which allows to control and modulate the resulting mechanical properties. The incorporation of such nanoparticles enables us to modify both the strength and the humidity-dependent swelling direction of printed parts, offering a fourth-dimensional property to the resulting composite. Antibacterial properties of the hydrogels were obtained by incorporating the functionalized peptide ε-polylysine, modified with the addition of a methacrylate group to ensure UV-immobilization. We highlight the relevance of well-adapted viscoelastic properties of our material for 3D printing by…

3D printing PCL/nHA bone scaffolds: exploring the influence of material synthesis techniques

Biomaterials Research 2021 Volume 25, Article number 3

Background It is known that a number of parameters can influence the post-printing properties of bone tissue scaffolds. Previous research has primarily focused on the effect of parameters associated with scaffold design (e.g., scaffold porosity) and specific scaffold printing processes (e.g., printing pressure). To our knowledge, no studies have investigated variations in post-printing properties attributed to the techniques used to synthesize the materials for printing (e.g., melt-blending, powder blending, liquid solvent, and solid solvent). Methods Four material preparation techniques were investigated to determine their influence on scaffold properties. Polycaprolactone/nano-hydroxyapatite 30% (wt.) materials were synthesized through melt-blending, powder blending, liquid solvent,…

A 3D printed graphene electrode device for enhanced and scalable stem cell culture, osteoinduction and tissue building

Materials & Design 2021 Volume 201, Article 109473

Bone related diseases and disorders increasingly impact human health. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to promote osteogenesis and healing of bone defects. Graphene, is an electrically conductive and biocompatible material with good mechanical properties (strength with flexibility), and therefore shows significant promise as a cell-compatible electrode for ES. Graphene-based scaffolds may therefore be used for 3D cell and tissue support, including 3D osteoinduction. We have fabricated 3D graphene electrode structures to provide ES to human adipose stem cells (ADSCs). The assemblies support ADSC growth and differentiation, with ES augmenting proliferation and osteogenesis. Our findings expand our previous work on…

3D bioprinting dermal-like structures using species-specific ulvan

Biomaterials Science 2021 Volume 9, Pages 2424-2438

3D bioprinting has been increasingly employed in skin tissue engineering for manufacturing living constructs with three-dimensional spatial precision and controlled architecture. There is however, a bottleneck in the tunability of bioinks to address specific biocompatibility challenges, functional traits and printability. Here we report on a traditional gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) based bioink, tuned by addition of an ulvan type polysaccharide, isolated from a cultivated source of a specific Australian Ulvacean macroalgae (Ul84). Ul84 is a sulfate- and rhamnose-rich polysaccharide, resembling mammalian glycosaminoglycans that are involved in wound healing and tissue matrix structure and function. Printable bioinks were developed by addition of…

3D-printable zwitterionic nano-composite hydrogel system for biomedical applications

Journal of Tissue Engineering 2020 Volume 11, Pages 1-11

Herein, the cytotoxicity of a novel zwitterionic sulfobetaine hydrogel system with a nano-clay crosslinker has been investigated. We demonstrate that careful selection of the composition of the system (monomer to Laponite content) allows the material to be formed into controlled shapes using an extrusion based additive manufacturing technique with the ability to tune the mechanical properties of the product. Moreover, the printed structures can support their own weight without requiring curing during printing which enables the use of a printing-then-curing approach. Cell culture experiments were conducted to evaluate the neural cytotoxicity of the developed hydrogel system. Cytotoxicity evaluations were conducted…

The Effect Of Multi-Material Printing To Flexibility

Acta Tecnología 2020 Volume 6, Pages 85-88

Currently, 3D printing is one of the popular technological production methods, mainly because it offers various options that affect the resulting properties of prints. The aim of the presented work is to manufacture a prosthetic finger with a PIP and DIP joint using multi-material 3D printing, which will allow to mimic the flexion of a physiological finger. The subject of this research and testing is the design of a combination of solid and flexible material for a monolithic finger model, which will allow the required bending in selected areas of the print.

Three-dimensional biofabrication of an aragonite-enriched self-hardening bone graft substitute and assessment of its osteogenicity in vitro and in vivo

Biomaterials Translational 2020 Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 69-81

A self-hardening three-dimensional (3D)-porous composite bone graft consisting of 65 wt% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 35 wt% aragonite was fabricated using a 3D-Bioplotter®. New tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous/aragonite/gelatine paste formulae were developed to overcome the phase separation of the liquid and solid components. The mechanical properties, porosity, height and width stability of the end products were optimised through a systematic analysis of the fabrication processing parameters including printing pressure, printing speed and distance between strands. The resulting 3D-printed bone graft was confirmed to be a mixture of HA and aragonite by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy…

Cryo‐3D Printing of Hierarchically Porous Polyhydroxymethylene Scaffolds for Hard Tissue Regeneration

Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 2021 Volume 306, Issue 1, Article 2000541

High molecular weight polyhydroxymethylene (PHM) has a repeat unit identical to that of low molecular weight sugar alcohols and exhibits carbohydrate‐like properties. Herein, cryogenic extrusion‐based 3D printing is combined with a phase separation in water to fabricate hierarchically porous PHM scaffolds containing interconnected macro‐, micro‐, and nanopores. As PHM is infusible and insoluble in common solvents, its precursor polyvinylene carbonate (PVCA) dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is used to 3D print hierarchically porous PVCA scaffolds that are converted into PHM by hydrolysis without impairing the pore architectures. Similar to low‐temperature deposition manufacturing, the PVCA/DMSO freezes on a build platform at −78…

Osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells using 3D-Printed PDLLA/ β-TCP nanocomposite scaffolds

Bioprinting 2021 Volume 21, Article e00117

Designing bone scaffolds containing both organic and inorganic composites simulating the architecture of the bone is the most important principle in bone tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to fabricate a composite scaffold containing poly (D, l)-lactide (PDLLA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as a platform for osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, PDLLA/β-TCP scaffolds were fabricated using three-dimensional printing (3D) technology through melt excursion technique. The physicomechanical characteristics, including microstructure, mechanical properties, of the customized scaffolds were investigated. Further, the in vitro biological characteristics of manufactured scaffolds were evaluated in conjugation with buccal fat…

Breast cancer patient‐derived scaffolds as a tool to monitor chemotherapy responses in human tumor microenvironments

Journal of Cellular Physiology 2021 Volume 236, Issue 6, Pages 4709-4724

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease where the tumor microenvironment, including extracellular components, plays a crucial role in tumor progression, potentially modulating treatment response. Different approaches have been used to develop three‐dimensional models able to recapitulate the complexity of the extracellular matrix. Here, we use cell‐free patient‐derived scaffolds (PDSs) generated from breast cancer samples that were recellularized with cancer cell lines as an in vivo‐like culture system for drug testing. We show that PDS cultured MCF7 cancer cells increased their resistance against the front‐line chemotherapy drugs 5‐fluorouracil, doxorubicin and paclitaxel in comparison to traditional two‐dimensional cell cultures. The gene expression…

Fabrication and characterization of mechanically competent 3D printed polycaprolactone-reduced graphene oxide scaffolds

Scientific Reports 2020 Volume 10, Article number 22210

The ability to produce constructs with a high control over the bulk geometry and internal architecture has situated 3D printing as an attractive fabrication technique for scaffolds. Various designs and inks are actively investigated to prepare scaffolds for different tissues. In this work, we prepared 3D printed composite scaffolds comprising polycaprolactone (PCL) and various amounts of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at 0.5, 1, and 3 wt.%. We employed a two-step fabrication process to ensure an even mixture and distribution of the rGO sheets within the PCL matrix. The inks were prepared by creating composite PCL-rGO films through solvent evaporation casting…

Development of novel chitosan / guar gum inks for extrusion-based 3D bioprinting: Process, printability and properties

Bioprinting 2021 Volume 21, Article e00122

The major limitation of 3D bioprinting is the availability of inks. In order to develop new ink formulations, both their rheological behavior to obtain the best printability and the target bio-printed objects conformities must be studied. In this paper, for the first time in our knowledge, the preparation and the characterization of novel ink formulations based on two natural biocompatible polysaccharides, chitosan (CH) and guar gum (GG), are presented. Five ink formulations containing different proportions of CH and GG were prepared and characterized in terms of rheological properties and solvent evaporation. Their printability was assessed (by varying the nozzle diameter,…

A tri-component knee plug for the 3rd generation of autologous chondrocyte implantation

Scientific Reports 2020 Volume 10, Article number: 17048

Here, we report a newly designed knee plug to be used in the 3rd generation of Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) in order to heal the damaged knee cartilage. It is composed of three components: The first component (Bone Portion) is a 3D printed hard scaffold with large pores (~ 850 µm), made by hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate to accommodate the bony parts underneath the knee cartilage. It is a cylinder with a diameter of 20 mm and height of 7.5 mm, with a slight dome shape on top. The plug also comprises a Cartilage Portion (component 2) which is a 3D…

Direct Ink Writing of Fully Bio-Based Liquid Crystalline Lignin/ Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Aqueous Inks: Optimization of Formulations and Printing Parameters

ACS Applied Bio Materials 2020 Volume 3, Issue 10, Pages 6897–6907

Following the recent demonstration of the potential to direct ink write lyotropic blends of organosolv lignin (OSL) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), this study aims to optimize the formulations and direct ink writing parameters for fully bio-based lignin/HPC inks. A prescreening identifies the theoretical window of printability for different compositions for formulations based on OSL solutions of 45, 47.5, and 50% solid contents and OSL/HPC wt %/wt % ratios of 30/70, 40/60, and 50/50. Measurements of shear–viscosity and recovery behavior evidence the shear-thinning contribution of HPC and the viscosity recovery contribution of lignin. Shape fidelity, morphology, and mechanical properties of printed…

Three dimensional printed bioglass/gelatin/alginate composite scaffolds with promoted mechanical strength, biomineralization, cell responses and osteogenesis

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2020 Volume 31, Article 77

In this study, porous bioglass/gelatin/alginate bone tissue engineering scaffolds were fabricated by three-dimensional printing. The compressive strength and in vitro biomineralization properties of the bioglass–gelatin–alginate scaffolds (BG/Gel/SA scaffolds) were significantly improved with the increase of bioglass content until 30% weight percentage followed by a rapid decline in strength. In addition, the cells attach and spread on the BG/Gel/SA scaffolds surfaces represents good adhesion and biocompatibility. Furthermore, the cells (rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mBMSCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the BG/Gel/SA scaffolds were also promoted with the increase of bioglass content. Overall, the adding of bioglass in Gel/SA scaffolds…

Inclusion of a 3D-printed Hyperelastic Bone mesh improves mechanical and osteogenic performance of a mineralized collagen scaffold

Acta Biomaterialia 2021 Volume 121, Pages 224–236

Regenerative repair of craniomaxillofacial bone injuries is challenging due to both the large size and irregular shape of many defects. Mineralized collagen scaffolds have previously been shown to be a promising biomaterial implant to accelerate craniofacial bone regeneration in vivo. Here we describe inclusion of a 3D-printed polymer or ceramic-based mesh into a mineralized collagen scaffold to improve mechanical and biological activity. Mineralized collagen scaffolds were reinforced with 3D-printed Fluffy-PLG (ultraporous polylactide-co-glycolide co-polymer) or Hyperelastic Bone (90wt% calcium phosphate in PLG) meshes. We show degradation byproducts and acidic release from the printed structures have limited negative impact on the viability…

Benefits of Polydopamine as Particle/Matrix Interface in Polylactide/PD-BaSO4 Scaffolds

International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020 Volume 21, Issue 15, Article 5480

This work reports the versatility of polydopamine (PD) when applied as a particle coating in a composite of polylactide (PLA). Polydopamine was observed to increase the particle–matrix interface strength and facilitate the adsorption of drugs to the material surface. Here, barium sulfate radiopaque particles were functionalized with polydopamine and integrated into a polylactide matrix, leading to the formulation of a biodegradable and X-ray opaque material with enhanced mechanical properties. Polydopamine functionalized barium sulfate particles also facilitated the adsorption and release of the antibiotic levofloxacin. Analysis of the antibacterial capacity of these composites and the metabolic activity and proliferation of human…

Engineering 3D degradable, pliable scaffolds toward adipose tissue regeneration; optimized printability, simulations and surface modification

Journal of Tissue Engineering 2020 Volume 11, Pages 1-17

We present a solution to regenerate adipose tissue using degradable, soft, pliable 3D-printed scaffolds made of a medical-grade copolymer coated with polydopamine. The problem today is that while printing, the medical grade copolyesters degrade and the scaffolds become very stiff and brittle, being not optimal for adipose tissue defects. Herein, we have used high molar mass poly(L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) (PLATMC) to engineer scaffolds using a direct extrusion-based 3D printer, the 3D Bioplotter®. Our approach was first focused on how the printing influences the polymer and scaffold’s mechanical properties, then on exploring different printing designs and, in the end, on assessing surface…

Expanding and optimizing 3D bioprinting capabilities using complementary network bioinks

Science Advances 2020 Volume 6, Article eabc5529

A major challenge in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is the limited number of bioinks that fulfill the physicochemical requirements of printing while also providing a desirable environment for encapsulated cells. Here, we address this limitation by temporarily stabilizing bioinks with a complementary thermo-reversible gelatin network. This strategy enables the effective printing of biomaterials that would typically not meet printing requirements, with instrument parameters and structural output largely independent of the base biomaterial. This approach is demonstrated across a library of photocrosslinkable bioinks derived from natural and synthetic polymers, including gelatin, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dextran, alginate, chitosan, heparin, and poly(ethylene glycol)….

Towards 3D Multi-Layer Scaffolds for Periodontal Tissue Engineering Applications: Addressing Manufacturing and Architectural Challenges

Polymers 2020 Volume 12, Issue 10, Article 2233

Reduced periodontal support, deriving from chronic inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis, is one of the main causes of tooth loss. The use of dental implants for the replacement of missing teeth has attracted growing interest as a standard procedure in clinical practice. However, adequate bone volume and soft tissue augmentation at the site of the implant are important prerequisites for successful implant positioning as well as proper functional and aesthetic reconstruction of patients. Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have greatly contributed to solve most of the challenges that traditional solutions (i.e., autografts, allografts and xenografts) posed. Nevertheless, mimicking the complex architecture and…

Additive manufacturing of silica aerogels

Nature 2020 Volume 584, Pages 387–392

Owing to their ultralow thermal conductivity and open pore structure, silica aerogels are widely used in thermal insulation, catalysis, physics, environmental remediation, optical devices and hypervelocity particle capture. Thermal insulation is by far the largest market for silica aerogels, which are ideal materials when space is limited. One drawback of silica aerogels is their brittleness. Fibre reinforcement and binders can be used to overcome this for large-volume applications in building and industrial insulation, but their poor machinability, combined with the difficulty of precisely casting small objects, limits the miniaturization potential of silica aerogels. Additive manufacturing provides an alternative route to…

Influence of Geometry and Architecture on the In Vivo Success of 3D-Printed Scaffolds for Spinal Fusion

Tissue Engineering Part A 2021 Volume 27, Issue 1-2, Pages 26-36

We previously developed a recombinant growth factor-free, three-dimensional (3D)-printed material comprising hydroxyapatite (HA) and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) for bone regeneration. This material has demonstrated the capacity to promote re-mineralization of the DBM particles within the scaffold struts and shows potential to promote successful spine fusion. Here, we investigate the role of geometry and architecture in osteointegration, vascularization, and facilitation of spine fusion in a preclinical model. Inks containing HA and DBM particles in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) elastomer were 3D-printed into scaffolds with varying relative strut angles (90° vs. 45° advancing angle), macropore size (0 μm vs. 500 μm vs. 1000 μm), and strut…

Topology-Optimized 4D Printing of a Soft Actuator

Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica 2020 Volume 33, Pages 418–430

Soft robots and actuators are emerging devices providing more capabilities in the field of robotics. More flexibility and compliance attributing to soft functional materials used in the fabrication of these devices make them ideal for delivering delicate tasks in fragile environments, such as food and biomedical sectors. Yet, the intuitive nonlinearity of soft functional materials and their anisotropic actuation in compliant mechanisms constitute an existent challenge in improving their performance. Topology optimization (TO) along with four-dimensional (4D) printing is a powerful digital tool that can be used to obtain optimal internal architectures for the efficient performance of porous soft actuators….

Endothelial/Mesenchymal Stem Cell Crosstalk within Bioprinted Cocultures

Tissue Engineering: Part A 2020 Volume: 26 Issue 5-6, Pages 339-349

The development of viable tissue surrogates requires a vascular network that sustains cell metabolism and tissue development. The coculture of endothelial cells (ECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the two key players involved in blood vessel formation, has been heralded in tissue engineering (TE) as one of the most promising approaches for scaffold vascularization. However, MSCs may exert both proangiogenic as well antiangiogenic role. Furthermore, it is unclear which cell type is responsible for the upregulation of angiogenic pathways observed in EC:MSC cocultures. There is disagreement on the proangiogenic action of MSCs, as they have also been shown to negatively…

3D-Printed Ceramic-Demineralized Bone Matrix Hyperelastic Bone Composite Scaffolds for Spinal Fusion

Tissue Engineering: Part A 2020 Volume: 26 Issue 3-4, Pages 157-166

Although numerous spinal biologics are commercially available, a cost-effective and safe bone graft substitute material for spine fusion has yet to be proven. In this study, “3D-Paints” containing varying volumetric ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA) and human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) elastomer were three-dimensional (3D) printed into scaffolds to promote osteointegration in rats, with an end goal of spine fusion without the need for recombinant growth factor. Spine fusion was evaluated by manual palpation, and osteointegration and de novo bone formation within scaffold struts were evaluated by laboratory and synchrotron microcomputed tomography and histology. The 3:1 HA:DBM composite…

Bioprinting of an osteocyte network for biomimetic mineralization

Biofabrication 2020 Volume 12, Number 4, Article 045013

Osteocytes, essential regulators of bone homeostasis, are embedded in the mineralized bone matrix. Given the spatial arrangement of osteocytes, bioprinting represents an ideal method to biofabricate a 3D osteocyte network with a suitable surrounding matrix similar to native bone tissue. Here, we reported a 3D bioprinted osteocyte-laden hydrogel for biomimetic mineralization in vitro with exceptional shape fidelity, a high cell density (107 cells per ml) and high cell viability (85–90%). The bioinks were composed of biomimetic modified biopolymers, namely, gelatine methacrylamide (GelMA) and hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HAMA), with or without type I collagen. The osteocyte-laden constructs were printed and cultured…

Polyhydroxymethylenes as Multifunctional High Molecular Weight Sugar Alcohols Tailored for 3D Printing and Medical Applications

Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 2020 Volume 221, Issue 15, Article 2000132

Common sugar alcohols used as artificial sweeteners and components of polymer networks represent low molecular weight polyhydroxymethylenes (PHMs) with the general formula [CH(OH)]n H2 but very low degree of polymerization (n = 2–6). Herein high molecular weight PHM (n >> 100) unparalleled in nature is tailored for 3D printing and medical applications by free radical polymerization of 1,3‐dioxol‐2‐one vinylene carbonate to produce polyvinylene carbonate (PVCA) which yields PHM by hydrolysis. Furthermore, PVCA is solution processable and enables PHM functionalization, membrane formation, and extrusion‐based 3D printing. Opposite to cellulose, amorphous PHM is plasticized by water and is readily functionalized via PVCA…

A novel vehicle-like drug delivery 3D printing scaffold and its applications for a rat femoral bone repairing in vitro and in vivo

International Journal of Biological Sciences 2020 Volume 16, Issue 11, Pages 1821-1832

The high surface area ratio and special structure of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) endow it with excellent physical adsorption of various drugs without destroying the chemical activity. Silicate 1393 bioactive glass (1393) is famous for its fantastic biodegradability and osteogenesis. Herein, we have built a novel vehicle-like drug delivery 3D printing scaffold with multiplexed drug delivery capacity by coating MBG on the surface of 1393 (1393@MBG). Furthermore, we have applied DEX and BMP-2 on the 1393@MBG scaffold to endow it with antibacterial and osteogenic properties. Results indicated that this 1393@MBG scaffold could effectively load and controlled release BMP-2, DNA and…

Cellular, Mineralized, and Programmable Cellulose Composites Fabricated by 3D Printing of Aqueous Pastes Derived from Paper Wastes and Microfibrillated Cellulose

Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 2020 Volume 305, Issue 4, Article 1900740

Combining recycling of paper wastes (WPs) with extrusion‐based additive manufacturing represents a sustainable route to cellular cellulose composites tailored for lightweight construction. Particularly, shear mixing of shredded WPs with an aqueous solution of a polymer binder like polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) yields aqueous pastes suitable for 3D printing. As a shear thinning additive, both WP and microfibrillated cellulose account for enhanced shear thinning and dimensional stability. Opposite to the formation of dense WP/PVA composites by melt extrusion, 3D printing of aqueous pastes produces cellular cellulose/PVA composites exhibiting hierarchical pore architectures. In spite of low densities around 0.8 g cm−3, high Young’s…

Functional reconstruction of injured corpus cavernosa using 3D-printed hydrogel scaffolds seeded with HIF-1α-expressing stem cells

Nature Communications 2020 Volume 11, Article 2687

Injury of corpus cavernosa results in erectile dysfunction, but its treatment has been very difficult. Here we construct heparin-coated 3D-printed hydrogel scaffolds seeded with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-mutated muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) to develop bioengineered vascularized corpora. HIF-1α-mutated MDSCs significantly secrete various angiogenic factors in MDSCs regardless of hypoxia or normoxia. The biodegradable scaffolds, along with MDSCs, are implanted into corpus cavernosa defects in a rabbit model to show good histocompatibility with no immunological rejection, support vascularized tissue ingrowth, and promote neovascularisation to repair the defects. Evaluation of morphology, intracavernosal pressure, elasticity and shrinkage of repaired cavernous tissue prove that…

Fabrication of forsterite scaffolds with photothermal-induced antibacterial activity by 3D printing and polymer-derived ceramics strategy

Ceramics International 2020 Volume 46, Issue 9, Pages 13607-13614
T. Zhu M. Zhu Y. Zhu

Bacterial infection of the implanting materials is one of the greatest challenges in bone tissue engineering. In this study, porous forsterite scaffolds with antibacterial activity have been fabricated by combining 3D printing and polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) strategy, which effectively avoided the generation of MgSiO3 and MgO impurities. Forsterite scaffolds sintered in an argon atmosphere can generate free carbon in the scaffolds, which exhibited excellent photothermal effect and could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro. In addition, forsterite scaffolds have uniform macroporous structure, high compressive strength (>30 MPa) and low degradation rate….

Bioprinting and in vitro characterization of alginate dialdehyde–gelatin hydrogel bio-ink

Bio-Design and Manufacturing 2020 Volume 3, Pages 48–59

Cell-laden cardiac patches have recently been emerging to renew cellular sources for myocardial infarction (MI, commonly know as a heart attack) repair. However, the fabrication of cell-laden patches with porous structure remains challenging due to the limitations of currently available hydrogels and existing processing techniques. The present study utilized a bioprinting technique to fabricate hydrogel patches and characterize them in terms of printability, mechanical and biological properties. Cell-laden hydrogel (or bio-ink) was formulated from alginate dialdehyde (ADA) and gelatin (GEL) to improve the printability, degradability as well as bioactivity. Five groups of hydrogel compositions were designed to investigate the influence…

Experiments on Flexible Filaments in Air Flow for Aeroelasticity and Fluid-Structure Interaction Models Validation

Fluids 2020 Volume 5, Issue 2, Article 90

Several problems in science and engineering are characterized by the interaction between fluid flows and deformable structures. Due to their complex and multidisciplinary nature, these problems cannot normally be solved analytically and experiments are frequently of limited scope, so that numerical simulations represent the main analysis tool. Key to the advancement of numerical methods is the availability of experimental test cases for validation. This paper presents results of an experiment specifically designed for the validation of numerical methods for aeroelasticity and fluid-structure interaction problems. Flexible filaments of rectangular cross-section and various lengths were exposed to air flow of moderate Reynolds…

Three-dimensional printing of chemically crosslinked gelatin hydrogels for adipose tissue engineering

Biofabrication 2020 Volume 12, Number 2, Article 025001

Despite their outstanding potential and the success that has already been achieved with three-dimensional (3D) printed hydrogel scaffolds, there has been little investigation into their application in the regeneration of damaged or missing adipose tissue (AT). Due to their macroscopic shape, microarchitecture, extracellular matrix-mimicking structure, degradability and soft tissue biomimetic mechanical properties, 3D printed hydrogel scaffolds have great potential for use in aesthetic, structural and functional restoration of AT. Here, we propose a simple and cost-effective 3D printing strategy using gelatin-based ink to fabricate scaffolds suitable for AT engineering. The ink, successfully printed here for the first time, was prepared…

A multilayered valve leaflet promotes cell-laden collagen type I production and aortic valve hemodynamics

Biomaterials 2020 Volume 240, Article 119838

Patients with aortic heart valve disease are limited to valve replacements that lack the ability to grow and remodel. This presents a major challenge for pediatric patients who require a valve capable of somatic growth and at a smaller size. A patient-specific heart valve capable of growth and remodeling while maintaining proper valve function would address this major issue. Here, we recreate the native valve leaflet structure composed of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and cell-laden gelatin-methacrylate/poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (GelMA/PEGDA) hydrogels using 3D printing and molding, and then evaluate the ability of the multilayered scaffold to produce collagen matrix under physiological shear…

Biomechanically, structurally and functionally meticulously tailored polycaprolactone/silk fibroin scaffold for meniscus regeneration

Theranostics 2020 Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 5090-5106

Meniscus deficiency, the most common and refractory disease in human knee joints, often progresses to osteoarthritis (OA) due to abnormal biomechanical distribution and articular cartilage abrasion. However, due to its anisotropic spatial architecture, complex biomechanical microenvironment, and limited vascularity, meniscus repair remains a challenge for clinicians and researchers worldwide. In this study, we developed a 3D printing-based biomimetic and composite tissue-engineered meniscus scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL)/silk fibroin (SF) with extraordinary biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. We hypothesized that the meticulously tailored composite scaffold could enhance meniscus regeneration and cartilage protection. Methods: The physical property of the scaffold was characterized by…

3D printing of multilayered scaffolds for rotator cuff tendon regeneration

Bioactive Materials 2020 Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 636-643

Repairing massive rotator cuff tendon defects remains a challenge due to the high retear rate after surgical intervention. 3D printing has emerged as a promising technique that enables the fabrication of engineered tissues with heterogeneous structures and mechanical properties, as well as controllable microenvironments for tendon regeneration. In this study, we developed a new strategy for rotator cuff tendon repair by combining a 3D printed scaffold of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) with cell-laden collagen-fibrin hydrogels. We designed and fabricated two types of scaffolds: one featuring a separate layer-by-layer structure and another with a tri-layered structure as a whole. Uniaxial tensile tests…

Toughening 3D-printed Sr–HT–Gahnite caffold through natural and synthetic polymer coating

International Journal of Applied Biomedical Engineering 2020 Volume 13, number 1, Pages 18-22

Bone scaffold for aiding bone regeneration in large bone defects should have following ideal characteristics; biocompatibility, biodegradability, bio-activity, high porous and interconnected-pore architecture, as well as, mechanical characteristics similar to the cortical bone for supporting loads. 3D printed Sr–HT (Sr–Ca2ZnSi2O7)–gahnite scaffold with hexagonal pore structure is an interesting bone scaffold meeting most of these ideal features. To explain, biocompatible, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive properties as well as unique high compressive strength are obtained from Sr–HT–gahnite, glass-ceramic, material. With hexagonal pore structure, the scaffold has compressive strength comparable to cortical bone balancing with high porosity and large pore size. Nonetheless, the scaffold…