3D printing/bioprinting are promising techniques to fabricate scaffolds with well controlled and patient-specific structures and architectures for bone tissue engineering. In this study, we developed a composite bioink consisting of silk fibroin (SF), gelatin (GEL), hyaluronic acid (HA), and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and 3D bioprinted the silk fibroin-based hybrid scaffolds. The 3D bioprinted scaffolds with dual crosslinking were further treated with human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to generate PRP coated scaffolds. Live/Dead and MTT assays demonstrated that PRP treatment could obviously promote the cell growth and proliferation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (HADMSC). In addition, the treatment of PRP did not significantly affect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expression, but significantly upregulated the gene expression levels of late osteogenic markers. This study demonstrated that the 3D printing of silk fibroin-based hybrid scaffolds, in combination with PRP post-treatment, might be a more efficient strategy to promote osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells and has significant potential to be used for bone tissue engineering.