3D Bioplotter Research Papers

Displaying 10 latest papers (375 papers in the database)

Aminated 3D Printed Polystyrene Maintains Stem Cell Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation

Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 2020 Volume 26, Number 2, Pages 118-131

As 3D printing becomes more common and the technique is used to build culture platforms, it is imperative to develop surface treatments for specific responses. The advantages of aminating and oxidizing polystyrene (PS) for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation are investigated. We find that ammonia (NH3) plasma incorporates amines while oxygen plasma adds carbonyl and carboxylate groups. Across 2D, 3D, and 3D dynamic culture, we find that the NH3- treated surfaces encouraged cell proliferation. Our results show that the NH3-treated scaffold was the only treatment allowing dynamic proliferation of hMSCs with little evidence of osteogenic differentiation….

Multimaterial Dual Gradient Three-Dimensional Printing for Osteogenic Differentiation and Spatial Segregation

Tissue Engineering Part A 2020 Volume 26, Number 5-6, Pages 239-252

In this study of three-dimensional (3D) printed composite β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)-/hydroxyapatite/poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-based constructs, the effects of vertical compositional ceramic gradients and architectural porosity gradients on the osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated. Specifically, three different concentrations of β-TCP (0, 10, and 20 wt%) and three different porosities (33% ± 4%, 50% ± 4%, and 65% ± 3%) were examined to elucidate the contributions of chemical and physical gradients on the biochemical behavior of MSCs and the mineralized matrix production within a 3D culture system. By delaminating the constructs at the gradient transition point, the spatial separation of cellular phenotypes could be specifically…

Complex‐Shaped Cellulose Composites Made by Wet Densification of 3D Printed Scaffolds

Advanced Functional Materials 2020 Volume 30, Issue 4, Article 1904127

Cellulose is an attractive material resource for the fabrication of sustainable functional products, but its processing into structures with complex architecture and high cellulose content remains challenging. Such limitation has prevented cellulose‐based synthetic materials from reaching the level of structural control and mechanical properties observed in their biological counterparts, such as wood and plant tissues. To address this issue, a simple approach is reported to manufacture complex‐shaped cellulose‐based composites, in which the shaping capabilities of 3D printing technologies are combined with a wet densification process that increases the concentration of cellulose in the final printed material. Densification is achieved by…

Investigation of semi-solid formulations for 3D printing of drugs after prolonged storage to mimic real-life applications

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2020 Volume 146, Article 105266

The implementation of tailor-made dosage forms is currently one of the biggest challenges in the health sector. Over the last years, different approaches have been introduced to provide an individual and precise dispensing of the appropriate dose of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). A more recent approach, which has been intensively researched in the last years, is 3D-printing of medicines. The aim of this work was to develop printing formulations free of organic solvents for a pressure-assisted microsyringe printing method (PAM), which should also be printable over several days of storage. Furthermore, the printed dosage forms should provide a sustained…

Three-dimensional printed multiphasic scaffolds with stratified cell-laden gelatin methacrylate hydrogels for biomimetic tendon-to-bone interface engineering

Journal of Orthopaedic Translation 2020

Background The anatomical properties of the enthesis of the rotator cuff are hardly regained during the process of healing. The tendon-to-bone interface is normally replaced by fibrovascular tissue instead of interposition fibrocartilage, which impairs biomechanics in the shoulder and causes dysfunction. Tissue engineering offers a promising strategy to regenerate a biomimetic interface. Here, we report heterogeneous tendon-to-bone interface engineering based on a 3D-printed multiphasic scaffold. Methods A multiphasic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)–PCL/tricalcium phosphate–PCL/tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold was manufactured using 3D printing technology. The three phases of the scaffold were designed to mimic the graded tissue regions in the tendon-to-bone interface—tendon, fibrocartilage, and…

3D printable Polycaprolactone-gelatin blends characterized for in vitro osteogenic potency

Reactive and Functional Polymers 2020 Volume 146, Article 104445

Synthetic polycaprolactone (PCL) was modified with various concentrations of gelatin (GL) to enhance its physical properties and biological activity for bone regeneration. A novel trisolvent mixture has been used to mix PCL and GL that were fabricated as scaffolds using 3D plotting. The scaffolds were characterized for their mechanical properties, hydrophilicity and swelling ability. In addition, the structure and morphology of the printed scaffolds were analyzed by Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputed tomography (μCT). Attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) cultured on the printed scaffolds were…

Highly Porous, Biocompatible Tough Hydrogels, Processable via Gel Fiber Spinning and 3D Gel Printing

Advanced Materials Interface 2020 Volume 7, Issue 3, Article 1901770

Conventional tough hydrogels offer enhanced mechanical properties and high toughness. Their application scope however is limited by their lack of processability. Here, a new porous tough hydrogel system is introduced which is processable via gel fiber spinning and 3D printing. The tough hydrogels are produced by rehydrating processable organogels developed by induced phase separation between two linear polymer chains capable of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Through a slow sol–gel phase separation, highly porous gel networks made of hydrogen bonded polymer chains is formed. These organogels can be easily transformed to 3D printed multimaterial constructs or gel fibers, and after rehydration produce…

Chondroinductive Alginate-Based Hydrogels Having Graphene Oxide for 3D Printed Scaffold Fabrication

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020 Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 4343-4357

Scaffolds based on bioconjugated hydrogels are attractive for tissue engineering because they can partly mimic human tissue characteristics. For example, they can further increase their bioactivity with cells. However, most of the hydrogels present problems related to their processability, consequently limiting their use in 3D printing to produce tailor-made scaffolds. The goal of this work is to develop bioconjugated hydrogel nanocomposite inks for 3D printed scaffold fabrication through a micro-extrusion process having improved both biocompatibility and processability. The hydrogel is based on a photocrosslinkable alginate bioconjugated with both gelatin and chondroitin sulfate in order to mimic the cartilage extracellular matrix,…

Printability and Critical Insight into Polymer Properties during Direct-Extrusion Based 3D Printing of Medical Grade Polylactide and Copolyesters

Biomacromolecules 2020 Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 388-396

Various 3D printing techniques currently use degradable polymers such as aliphatic polyesters to create well-defined scaffolds. Even though degradable polymers are influenced by the printing process, and this subsequently affects the mechanical properties and degradation profile, degradation of the polymer during the process is not often considered. Degradable scaffolds are today printed and cell–material interactions evaluated without considering the fact that the polymer change while printing the scaffold. Our methodology herein was to vary the printing parameters such as temperature, pressure, and speed to define the relationship between printability, polymer microstructure, composition, degradation profile during the process, and rheological behavior….

PLLA PCLA PLGA

Investigation of thermoplastic melt flow and dimensionless groups in 3D bioplotting

Rheologica Acta 2020 Volume 59, Pages 83–93

We investigate the key 3D bioplotting processing parameters, including needle diameter and dispensing pressure, on the shear rates, shear stresses, pressure drops, and swell ratios of extruded miscible polycaprolactone (PCL) blends having a range of viscosities. Assuming simple capillary flow, we construct flow curves and we estimate that the shear stresses inside the needle of the bioplotter range from 2500 to 20,000 Pa and the corresponding shear rates from 2 to 25 s−1, depending upon the viscosity of the blend. We further identify relevant dimensionless numbers that reflect the material rheological properties and processing conditions; these include the capillary number…

PCL